Objectives (DQOs) and Measurement Quality Objectives (MQOs)
are or should be the foundation of all monitoring studies as
these define the objectives for the monitoring and the data
quality needed to respond to those objectives. MQOs are statements
that contain specific units of measure such as percent recovery,
percent relative standard deviation, standard deviation of X
micrograms per liter, or detection level of Y parts per billion.
They should be thoroughly specified to allow specific comparisons
of data to an MQO. DQOs are statements that define the confidence
required in conclusions drawn from data produced by a project.
The MDCB will be compiling
relevant information produced by several agencies to develop
clear guidance on how to define DQOs and MQOs using real-world
examples from the water quality monitoring field. An expert
system is being developed to connect the DQO/MQO concept to
other Board products (NEMI, WQDEs).
is a series of programs with a user interface like a common calculator
and it is accessed using Microsoft Windows. DQO-PRO provides
answers for three objectives:
- Determining the rate at which an
- Determining an estimate of an averge
within a tolerable error, and
- Determining the sampling grid necessary
to detect "hot spots".
DQO-PRO facilitates understanding
the significance of DQOs by showing the relationships between
numbers of samples and DQO parameters such as (1) confidence levels
versus numbers of false positive or negative conclusions; (2)
tolerable error versus analyte concentration, standard deviation,
etc., and (3) confidence levels versus sampling area grid size.
The user has only to type in his or her requirements and the calculator
instantly provides the answers.
For example, if you
provide numbers of samples that you have (or plan to take), the
calculator estimates various confidence levels or, if you provide
confidence levels (as part of your DQOs), the calculator estimates
the numbers of samples you'll need to obtain those confidence
Switching between numbers of samples and
DQO parameters such as confidence levels, standard deviations, tolerable
errors, etc. is accomplished by simply leaving blank the parameter
to be calculated or by selecting a button on the calculator.
is an expert system (interactive software) for project managers,
administrators, and others who use or procure laboratory services
for environmental analyses. It is used to plan improved and cost-effective
environmental monitoring projects. It is also a highly effective
teaching aid for instructors and students and was funded in part
by the National Science Foundation (NSF). EMMA's new innovative
technology leads you through complex decisions to tailor your plans
to meet specific project needs by considering the physical and chemical
characteristics of the sampling site and target analytes, desired
data quality, available budget, your objectives, and the consequences
of making incorrect decisions based on the data you will obtain.
EPA uses its Quality
System to manage the quality of its environmental data collection,
generation, and use. The primary goal of the EPA Quality System
is to ensure that its environmental data are of sufficient quantity
and quality to support the data's intended use. The EPA Quality
System requires that each EPA Office, Region, and Research and Development
Laboratory or Center develop and implement supporting Quality Systems.
EPA's Quality System specifications may also apply to extramural
agreement holders (i.e., contractors, grantees, and other recipients
of financial assistance from EPA). The Office of Environmental Information's
Quality Staff develops Agency-wide Quality System policies, develops
supporting guidance and tools, provides related training and outreach,
and oversees the implementation by EPA organizations. The Quality
Staff may be contacted by phone at (202) 564-6830, FAX at (202)
565-2441, or E-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.