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COASTAL CHALLENGES
A Guide to Coastal and Marine Issues
February 1998


This document is available in PDF format (1.84MB), which can be viewed using Adobe Acrobat® Reader.
Preface

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Defining Coastal and Marine Waters

Highlights
Internationally Declared Zones
Nationally Recognized Definitions

Chapter 3: Importance of the Resource: Facts at Your Fingertips

Highlights
Plant and Animal Species
Energy and Mineral Resources
Wetlands
Commercial Uses
Shipping, Ports, and Harbors
Recreational Uses
Waste Disposal

Chapter 4: Major Coastal and Marine Resource Issues

Highlights
Population
Pollution
Hypoxic Waters and the "Dead Zone"
Heated (Thermal) Water
Habitat Loss
Coastal Hazards
Coastal Property Rights
Marine and Beach Debris
Oil Spills
Global Climate Change
Overfishing
Loss of Biological Diversity
Nonindigenous or "Nuisance" Species

Chapter 5: Key Laws and Associated Programs

National Environmental Policy Act
Clean Water Act
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
Water Resources Development Act of 1996
Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972
Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
Endangered Species Act
National Invasive Species Act of 1996
Oil Pollution Act of 1990
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,
     and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund)

Appendix A: Additional Laws and Programs

Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899
Submerged Lands Act
Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
Land and Water Conservation Fund Act
Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978
Coastal Barriers Resources Act/Improvement Act
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974
Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping
     of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)
Brownfields
Fish and Wildlife Service's Coastal Ecosystem Program
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreements
Great Lakes Protection Fund
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
State Wetlands Grants Program
The National Sea Grant College Program
Legacy Resource Management Program
National Oceanic Partnership Program
Agricultural Outleasing Funds
Additional Federal Activities
Coastal America

Appendix B: Key National and Regional Contacts

Private Organizations
Government Agencies
Hotlines, Clearinghouses, and Databases

Appendix C: Glossary

Appendix D: List of Acronyms

Appendix E: Source Materials

Index


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