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Alaskan Volcanoes Update from the Alaska Volcano Observatory
ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY WEEKLY UPDATE Friday October 8, 2004 4:00 PM ADT (00:0 0 UTC) ALASKA VOLCANOES MOUNT SPURR VOLCANO (CAVW#1103-04) 61°18' N 152°15' W, Summit Elevation 11,070 ft (3,374 m) Current Level of Concern Color Code: YELLOW Elevated levels of seismicity continue to be recorded at Mt. Spurr volcano. This week, about 57 earthquakes were located within 30 km of the summit, with an average of approximately 8 events per day. No observation flights were conducted this week. No anomalous activity was observed in satellite data, although clouds obscurred the view for most of the week. The Spurr web cam is now available for viewing on the AVO website at: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/avo4/atlas/volc/spurr/spurr2004/index.html Mt. Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano located on the west side of Cook Inlet. The only known historical eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992 from the Crater Peak flank vent located 3.5 km (2 mi) south of the summit of Mt. Spurr. These eruptions were explosive, brief in duration, and produced towering columns of ash that rose up to 20 km (65,000 ft) above sea level and deposited several mm of ash on populated areas of south-central Alaska, including approximately 6 mm of ash on Anchorage in 1953. The summit of Mt. Spurr and the surrounding avalanche caldera is heavily mantled by ice and snow. The last known eruption from the summit dome of Mt. Spurr was more than 5,000 years ago. The primary hazards associated with future eruptions from the Mt. Spurr summit vent and from Crater Peak include far-traveled ash clouds, ash fall, pyroclastic flows, and lahars or mudflows that could inundate drainages all sides of the volcano, but primarily on the south and east flanks. MOUNT VENIAMINOF VOLCANO (CAVW #1102-07) 56°10'N 159°23'W, Summit Cone Elevation 7,073 ft (2,156 m) Current Level of Concern Color Code: YELLOW Low-level seismic tremor and intermittent small tremor bursts continue at Mount Veniaminof Volcano. These tremor episodes likely represent low-level ash and steam emissions similar to those observed over the past four months, although cloudy conditions obscured views of the volcano in web camera and satellite data. Activity at Veniaminof could, at any time, become more vigorous, and the steam and ash emissions from the intracaldera cone do pose a hazard to people and low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the caldera. AVO will continue to monitor activity at Veniaminof using seismic data, satellite images, Internet camera data and observer reports. Mount Veniaminof volcano is a young stratovolcano with an ice-filled 10-km (6 mi) diameter summit caldera located on the Alaska Peninsula, 775 km (480 mi) southwest of Anchorage and 35 km (22 mi) north of Perryville. Veniaminof is one of the largest and most active volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc and has erupted at least 12 times in the past 200 years. The most recent significant eruption of the volcano occurred in 1993-95 and was characterized by intermittent, low-level emissions of steam and ash, and a small lava flow onto the summit caldera ice field producing an ice pit. Previous historical eruptions have produced ash plumes that reached 6,000 m (20,000 ft) above sea level and associated ash fall within about 40 km (25 mi) of the volcano. Minor ash emissions similar to those occurring at present were also detected in late 2002. SHISHALDIN VOLCANO (CAVW #1101-36) 54°45'N 163°58'W, Summit Cone Elevation 9,373 ft (2,857 m) Current Level of Concern Color Code: YELLOW Low-level seismic tremor continues to be recorded at Shishaldin Volcano. This level of activity is similar to that observed over the past several months. Satellite views of the volcano this week were obscured by clouds. We see nothing at this time to indicate that more vigorous activity is imminent. However, activity at Shishaldin could increase rapidly and ash and gas emissions may pose a hazard to people and low-flying aircraft in the vicinity of the summit. AVO will continue to monitor activity at Shishaldin Volcano using seismic data, satellite images, and observer reports. Shishaldin Volcano, located near the center of Unimak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands, is a spectacular symmetric cone with base diameter of approximately 10 miles (16 km). A small summit crater typically emits a noticeable steam plume with occasional small amounts of ash. Shishaldin is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian volcanic arc, erupting at least 28 times since 1775. Most of Shishaldin's eruptions have consisted of small ash and steam plumes, although the most recent eruption in April-May 1999 produced an ash column that reached a height of 45,000 ft above sea level. OTHER ALASKA VOLCANOES Seismic activity is monitored in real time at 27 volcanoes in Alaska Satellite images of all Alaskan volcanoes are analyzed daily for evidence of ash plumes and elevated surface temperatures. Some volcanoes may currently display anomalous behavior but are not considered to be at a dangerous level of unrest. Wrangell, Redoubt, Iliamna, Augustine, Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta Trident, Mageik, Martin, Aniakchak, Pavlof, Dutton, Isanotski, Fisher, Westdahl, Akutan, Makushin, Okmok, Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Tanaga, and Gareloi volcanoes are in color code GREEN. All are at or near normal levels of background seismicity. AVO did not detect ash plumes or significant elevated surface temperatures in the vicinity of any volcano. ABBREVIATED COLOR CODE KEY (contact AVO for complete description): GREEN volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity occurring YELLOW volcano is restless; eruption may occur ORANGE volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time RED significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected at any time VOLCANO INFORMATION ON THE INTERNET: http://www.avo.alaska.edu RECORDING ON THE STATUS OF ALASKA'S VOLCANOES (907) 786-7478 CONTACT INFORMATION: Tom Murray, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS firstname.lastname@example.org (907) 786-7497 Steve McNutt, Acting-Coordinating Scientist, UAF-GI email@example.com (907) 474-7131 The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. `
Hawaiian Volcanoes Update from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Long Valley area Update from the Long Valley Observatory
The CURRENT CONDITION is GREEN
(background activity within the caldera posing no Immediate Risk
for volcanic activity in the area). Last updated at 10:00 AM
(PDT) on October 14, 2004.
See Response Plan
for information on conditions, activity levels, and the Long
Valley caldera response plan.
Earthquake activity within and adjacent to the
caldera has remained low since mid-1999 averaging just
five to 10 earthquakes per day with magnitudes less
than M=2 and an occasional event as large as M=3;
Renewed uplift of the resurgent dome that began in early 2002
ended in early 2003
largely offseting the 2 cm of subsidence that accumulated from early
1999 through the end of 2001. The resurent dome has since shown minor
fluctuations in uplift and subsidence but remains roughly
80 cm higher than in the late 1970's.
The diffuse carbon dioxide gas flux in the Horseshoe
Lake tree-kill area
has shown little change from the relatively high
levels of 50 to 150 tons per day sustained for the
past several years; see
Cascade Range Volcanoes Update from the Cascades Volcano Observatory
Volcanoes in the Cascade Range are all at normal levels of background seismicity except for Mount St. Helens. See Mount St. Helens update below.
Other volcanoes include Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, and Mount Adams in Washington State; Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Three Sisters, Newberry, and Crater Lake, in Oregon; and Medicine Lake, Mount Shasta, and Lassen Peak in northern California.
USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network at the University of Washington, and the USGS Northern California Seismic Network and Volcano Hazards Team in Menlo Park, California, monitor the major volcanoes in the Cascade Range of northern California, Oregon, and Washington.
Mount St. Helens Update, October 14, 2004, 6:15 p.m, PDT
Current status is Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code ORANGE
Seismic activity remained at a low level today. Today’s visual observations and thermal imaging of the crater were focused on the intensely deforming and uplifting area on the south side of the 1980-86 lava dome and the new lobe of lava in the western part of that area. The area of both the uplift and the new lobe of lava have increased slightly since yesterday. Yesterday’s gas-sensing flight detected low levels of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, but no carbon dioxide. Abundant steam continues to rise from the area of lava extrusion to the crater rim, from which it is being dispersed downwind. Measurements taken yesterday of flow-rate and temperature in streams draining the crater showed no significant change from late September values.
Other field work today included a gas-sensing flight (data not yet reduced), downloading GPS data, and servicing GPS stations.
Wind forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), combined with eruption models, show that any ash clouds will drift south-southeastward this evening and southeastward tomorrow morning. Magma continues to be at a very shallow level and is extruding onto the surface and forming a new lobe of the lava dome. Small emissions of steam and ash are possible. Reflection onto steam clouds of incandescence or glow from the hot rock and gases will be visible at night from some locations.
Lava-dome growth is a dynamic process and, as we observed in the mid-1980s, Mount St. Helens and similar volcanoes elsewhere typically go through episodic changes in level of activity over periods of days to weeks, or even months. We expect fluctuations in the level of eruptive activity to continue. Escalation could occur suddenly. Therefore, we continue to monitor the situation closely and will issue additional updates and changes in alert level as warranted.
Under current conditions, small lahars (volcanic debris flows) could be triggered if hot material from the new lava extrusion swiftly melts glacier ice. Such lahars pose negligible hazard below the Sediment Retention Structure (SRS), but could pose a hazard to people working or recreating along the river channel upstream of the SRS. Furthermore, due to weather and stream-flow conditions at this time of year, it is not unusual for rivers draining the volcano to contain high concentrations of sediment that turn the water murky.
There will no longer be daily media briefings at the Headquarters of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. A media briefing will be held tomorrow at 1 p.m. at Castle Lake Viewpoint in the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. However no additional such briefing are planned until conditions warrant them. Beginning tomorrow, we will release only one daily update, at approximately 11 a.m. Tomorrow’s update will contain information regarding media contacts with the Joint Information Center.
Yellowstone area Update from the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (See Anatahan home page)
Anatahan Volcano Update for October 9, 2004
Submitted Saturday, October 9, 2004 at 0700 local Anatahan time
There was no significant volcano-seismic activity in the Anatahan
area during the past week.
On July 26, the seismicity level decreased dramatically to a very low level, and it remains very low. The seismic signals and visual reports indicate that the frequent strombolian explosions have ceased and suggest that the eruption is over.
Russia: Kamchatkan volcanoes Update from the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team
Kamchatkan and Northern Kurile Volcanic Activity INFORMATION RELEASE 50-04 Friday, October 15, 2004, 12:40 KDT (23:40 UTC on October 14) The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received the following release via e-mail from KVERT (Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team). Kamchatkan Daylight saving Time (KDT) is 21 hours ahead of Alaska Daylight Savings Time. All time and dates are UTC, if not marked specifically. SUMMARY OF LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODES: KAMCHATKA: SHEVELUCH and KARYMSKY: ORANGE KLYUCHEVSKOY and BEZYMIANNY: YELLOW TOLBACHIK PLOSKY, KIZIMEN, AVACHINSKY, KORYAKSKY, MUTNOVSKY and GORELY: GREEN NORTHERN KURILE: ALAID: GREEN SHEVELUCH VOLCANO: 56 38'N, 161 19'E; Elevation 3,283 m, the dome elevation ~2,500 m. CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS ORANGE. Unrest at the volcano continues. A lava dome is growing in the active crater. At any time and with little warning, explosions could produce ash plumes that could rise as high as 10 km or 33,000 ft. ASL, as well as localized ash fall. Seismic activity was above background levels. Weak shallow earthquakes at a depth 0-5 km beneath the active dome were registered. Two strong shallow earthquakes of Ml=1.75 and 2.1 were recorded on October 08 and 11, respectively. Intermittent spasmodic volcanic tremor 0.4-0.5x10-6 mps was registered on October 07-12, and tremor increased to 0.7x10-6 mps on October 13. According to seismic data, possible weak ash-gas explosions and hot avalanches occurred all week. According to visual observations from Klyuchi, ash plumes rose up to 3.5 km (or 11,500 ft) ASL on October 07 and 12, extended >10 km (or 6 mi) to the east. Weak gas-steam activity occurred on October 11 and 12. Clouds obscured the volcano at other times. According to satellite data from the USA and Russia, 1-7-pixel thermal anomaly was registered over the lava dome all week. A narrow ash plume extending 31 km (or 19 mi) to the east-southeast was observed on October 08. A dust-ash cloud extending ~ 400 km (or 250 mi) to the south-east was noted on October 10-11. The possible reason of this phenomenon was very strong wind (more than 20 mps) in the volcano area. There was no seismic data about any ash explosions that time. An ash plume extending up to the 300 km (or 186 mi) to the southeast was observed on October 12. KARYMSKY VOLCANO: 54 03'N, 159 27'E; Elevation 1,486 m. CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS ORANGE. Over the past three weeks the number of seismic events at the volcano has increased. Accordingly, the danger of a sudden explosion or series of explosions up to 6 km (or 19,800 ft.) ASL is high. A local ash fall within a few tens of km around the volcano is also possible. Seismic activity was above background levels this week. The number of local shallow events was 310-540 events per day. According to seismic data, possible weak ash-gas explosions took place all week. Possible ash-gas explosions up to 2.5-3 km (or 8,200-9,800 ft) ASL occurred on October 09, 12, 13. According to satellite data from the USA and Russia, 2-5-pixel thermal anomaly over the volcano was noted on October 08, 09, 11 and 12. Ash plumes, extending 80 and 50 km (or 50 and 35 mi) to the east then east-southeast were noted on October 11 and 12, respectively. Clouds obscured the volcano at other times. KLYUCHEVSKOY VOLCANO: 56 03'N, 160 39'E; Elevation 4,750 m CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW. Seismic activity of the volcano is increasing a little. Fumarolic activity of the volcano is recorded every day. Occasional and repeated explosions, containing ash and reaching altitudes of 5-6 km (or 16,500-19,800 ft), are possible at any time. Seismic activity was at background levels this week. 654 earthquakes of Ml=1.2- 2.3 and 132 strong ones of Ml>1.7 at a depth ~ 30 km beneath the volcano were recorded on October 07-13. Numbers of strong earthquakes suddenly increased to 53 on October 10. According to visual observations from Klyuchi, a gas-steam plume rose up to 5 km (or 16,400 ft) ASL extending to the east-southeast was noted on October 08. Weak fumarolic activity occurred on October 08-10. Clouds obscured the volcano at other times. BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO 55 58'N, 160 36'E; Elevation 2,895 m CURRENT LEVEL OF CONCERN COLOR CODE IS YELLOW. Unrest at the volcano continues. The lava dome of the volcano is growing. Fumarolic activity of the volcano is recorded every day. The thermal anomaly over the lava dome is noted sometimes. The nearest (13.5 km) seismic station from the volcano is located at Klyuchevskoy volcano slope. The registration of weak shallow seismic events is difficult. Seismic activity was not exceeding background levels at all week. According to visual observations from Klyuchi, on October 07, 11 and 12, gas-steam plumes rose up to 3 km (or 9,800 ft) ASL and extended to the north-west up to the 10 km (or 6 mi) on October 07. Clouds obscured the volcano at other times. According to satellite data from the USA and Russia, 1-2-pixel thermal anomaly over the dome was noted on October 10 and 12. PLEASE CONTACT AVO IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS Sergey Ushakov Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team IVS FED RAS, Piip Blvd, 9 Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006 RUSSIA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel. (41522) 58627 Tom Murray Scientist-in-Charge, Alaska Volcano Observatory 4200 University Drive Anchorage, Alaska 99508 USA E-mail: email@example.com Tel. 907-786-7497 The Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team is a cooperative program of the Alaska Volcano Observatory (USA), the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FED RAS and the Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismological Department GS RAS (Russia).