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Table of Contents

Secretary's Message

Executive Summary

Chapter 1:

Scope, Focus, and Overarching Themes

Secondary Areas of Concern

Youth Violence: The Public Health Approach

Myths About Youth Violence

Sources of Data and Standards of Evidence

Overview of the Report's Chapters

Chapter Conclusions

Preparation of the Report


Chapter 2:
The Magnitude of Youth Violence

Measuring Youth Violence

The Violence Epidemic

Arrests for Violent Crimes

Prevalence of Violent Behavior

Differences by Sex and Race/Ethnicity

Violence at School

Gangs and Violence



Appendix 2-A

Chapter 3:
The Developmental Dynamics of Youth Violence

Early- and Late-Onset Trajectories

Onset and Prevalence of Serious Violence

Cumulative Prevalence

Rates of Offending and Violent Careers

Developmental Pathway to Violence

Chronic Violent Offenders


Co-Occurring Problem Behaviors

Offending and Victimization

Transition to Adulthood



Chapter 4:
Risk Factors for Youth Violence

Introduction to Risk and Protective Factors

Risk Factors in Childhood

Risk Factors in Adolescence

Proposed Protective Factors in Childhood and Adolescence



Appendix 4-A: Lipsey and Derzon’s Classes of Risk Factors

Appendix 4-B: Violence in the Media and Its Effect on Youth Violence

Media Violence: Exposure and Content

Major Behavioral Effects of Media Violence

Summary of Major Empirical Research Findings

Preventive Efforts



Chapter 5:
Prevention and Intervention

Promoting Healthy, Nonviolent Children

Methods of Identifying Best Practices

Scientific Standards for Determining Program Effectiveness

Stategies and Programs: Model, Promising, and Does Not Work



Going to Scale


Appendix 5-A: Consistency of Best Practices Evaluations

Appendix 5-B: Descriptions of Specific Programs That Meet Standards for Model and Promising Categories

Model Programs: Level 1 (Violence Prevention)

Model Programs: Level 2 (Risk Prevention)

Promising Programs: Level 1 (Violence Prevention)

Promising Programs: Level 2 (Risk Prevention)

Chapter 6
A Vision for the Future

Continue to Build the Science Base

Accelerate the Decline in Gun Use by Youths in Violent Encounters

Facilitate the Entry of Youths into Effective Intervention Programs Rather Than Incarcerating Them

Disseminate Model Programs with Incentives That Will Ensure Fidelity to Original Program Design When Taken to Scale

Provide Training and Certification Programs for Intervention Personnel

Improve Public Awareness of Effective Interventions

Convene Youths and Families, Researchers, and Private and Public Organizations for a Periodic Youth Violence Summit

Improve Federal, State, and Local Strategies for Reporting Crime Information and Violent Deaths






2-1. Definitions of the four violent crimes considered in this report

4-1. Early and late risk factors for violence at age 15 to 18 and proposed protective factors, by domain

5-1. Rating intervention strategies

5-2. Rating prevention programs

5-3. What Model programs cost


2-1. Arrest rates of youths age 10-17 for serious violent crime, 1980-1999

2-2. Arrest rates of youths age 10-17 for serious violent crime, by type of crime, 1980-1999

2-3. Firearm- and nonfirearm-related homicides by youths, 1980-1997

2-4. Nonfatal firearm-related injuries of youths age 10-19 treated in hospital emergency departments, 1993-1998

2-5. High school students who carried weapons, 1991-1999

2-6. Trends in youth violence since 1983

2-7. Trends in incident rates of serious violence among 12th graders, assault with injury and robbery with a weapon combined, 1980-1998

2-8. Trends in prevalence of serious violence among 12th graders, 1980-1998

2-9. Twelfth graders injured with a weapon at school, 1980-1998

3-1. Hazard rate for initiating serious violence, by age, National Youth Survey

3-2. Prevalence of serious violence among male youths, by age: four longitudinal surveys

3-3. Cumulative prevalence of serious violence, by age, sex, and race: four longitudinal surveys


2-1. International comparison of the annual and cumulative prevalence of self-reported violent behavior by youths, 1992-1993

2-2. Differences in youths' self-reported violent behavior, by sex and race, 1983, 1993, and 1998

2-3. Differences in youth arrests for serious violent crimes, by sex and race/ethnicity, 1983, 1993, and 1998

3-1. Prevalence of serious violence by age, sex, and race/ethnicity: four longitudinal surveys

4-1. Effect sizes of early and late risk factors for violence at age 15 to 18

4-2. Proposed protective factors, evidence of buffering risk, and outcome affected, by domain

5-1. Average effect size

5-2. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention in California

5-3. Comparative costs and benefits of prevention and intervention

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