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Secretary's Message

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Introduction

Chapter 2
The Magnitude of Youth Violence

Chapter 3
The Developmental Dynamics of Youth Violence

Chapter 4
Risk Factors for Youth Violence

Chapter 5
Prevention and Intervention

Chapter 6
A Vision for the Future

Glossary

Index

List of Tables and Figures

Executive Summary

Index

A


Arrest record data, 1

Academic programs, 113-114

Active involvement, defined, 46

Adequate measurement, 115

Adult court, waivers to, 117-118

Adulthood, transition to, 51-52

Advisory labels on music and video games, 93

African American youths, 18, 20-21, 28-31, 33, 34, 43, 44, 46, 48, 51

disproportionate number of youth homicide victims, 21

arrest ratios, 29-30

peak age of onset of violence and, 43

cumulative prevalence of violence and, 46

age-specific prevalence of violence and, 44

victimization and, 51

adult violent behavior and, 46, 51

Age of child and effect of media violence, 92

Age-specific prevalence, 42, 43-44

defined, 43

maturation effect and, 43

sex and, 41, 43, 44

race/ethnicity, 43, 44

Hispanic youths and, 44

African American youths and, 44

Aggravated assault, 17, 19, 21, 24, 42

defined, 17

arrest rates, 19, 21

Aggression as a result of media violence, 87-94

Aggression, 63, 66, 68

Aggression, reduction in, 134-136

Alcohol, 49, 51, 64, 66, 69, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112, 116, 135-136, 137, 146, 147, 148, 156

involvement at time of violence, 156

consumption by children, 135, 137

use of by serious violent youths, 49, 69

as part of a delinquent lifestyle, 51

adolescents and experimentation with, 64

prenatal exposure interfering with normal development, 66

reduction in use accompanying intervention programs, 106, 108, 109, 111, 112, 116, 135-136, 137, 146, 147, 148

Life Skills Training (LST), 106, 137

Preparing for the Drug-Free Years, 108, 148

Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT), 108, 147

Seattle Social Development Project, 109, 135-136

Montreal Longitudinal Study, 111

Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses, 112, 135

Functional Family Therapy (FFT), 116

Midwestern Prevention Project, the, 137

Iowa Strengthening Families Program, 146

Antisocial behavior, 63-64, 64, 66, 68

Antisocial parents, 66

Arrest and incarceration rates, 133-135

Arrest rates of young people, 18-22, 24-27, 29-30, 33

misconceptions concerning increased rates in 1983-1993, 26

70 percent increase between 1983 and 1993, 20

near tripling of homicide arrest rate, 20

few chronic offenders apparently arrested for serious violent crime, 25-26

sex and race, differences by, 27-31, 34

racial differences inconsistent with self-reports, 18, 30, 34

Arrest rates, 156

Arrest records, 17-19, 24, 25, 46

limitations, 17-19

Arrests for violent crimes, 18-22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 33

Asian American youths, 29-30

arrest ratios, 29-30

Assault, aggravated, 17, 19, 24-25

arrest rate has not decreased, 24-25

Assaults with injury, prevalence rates, 25-27

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 63, 65

B


Behavior management programs, 108-109

Behavior monitoring and reinforcement, 115

Behavioral and skill development interventions, 115

Behavioral effects of media violence, 89-92

unequal effect found, 90, 92

experimental methods, 89

cross-sectional surveys, 90

longitudinal studies, 90

sex and, 90, 91

delayed effect suggested, 91

Internet, the, 92

music videos, 92

video games, 92

potential moderators, of, 92

Behavioral token programs, 118

Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention, 101, 124

Boot camps, 117

Broken homes, 66-67

Bullying Prevention Program, 109, 142

C


Capacity-building programs, 110

Career length, defined, 47

Caregiving, 135

CASASTART, 112-113

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 23, 30-31, 124

Child abuse and neglect, as risk factor, 66, 67, 71-72

Childhood, 41

predictability of violent behavior, 41, 42

violence prevention programs and, 42

serious offenders begin violent behavior in, 41, 42

Children and media violence, 87-88

City surveys, 42-51

Classroom management programs, 108-109

Community-based programs, 110

Compensatory education, 113

Conduct disorder, 71-72

Continuous progress programs, 110

Co-occurring problems, 49-51

substance use and abuse, 49-51

no causal relationship with serious youth violence, 49

mental disorders, 49-51

high self-esteem linked to violence, 50

schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, 50

Cooperative learning, 110

Cost-effectiveness of prevention programs, 119-120

and get-tough laws and incarceration, 119-120

early childhood intervention, 120

parent training, 120

public school programs, 120

early interventions, 120-121

time lag, problem of, 120

three-strikes law, 120

graduation incentives, 121

Costs of violence, 119

Counseling, 118

Crack cocaine market and guns, 23

Crimes addressed in this report, 17

defined, 17

See also Homicide; Robbery; Aggravated assault; Rape.

Crimes committed by youths, 17. See Youth violence.

majority do not reach justice system, 18, 26

Criteria for inclusion of programs in this report, 100, 102-105

Cross-sectional studies, 8

Cross-sectional studies, problems with, 47

Cross-sectional surveys on media violence, 90

Cumulative prevalence of youth violence, 45-46

age and, 45

defined, 45

sex and, 45-46

race and, 46

magnitude of, 45, 46

D


Denver Youth Survey, 26, 33, 42, 44, 45-46

Deterrent effects, absolute and marginal, 101

Developmental dynamics of youth violence, 41-52

Developmental pathway to violence, 47

Developmental perspective on violence, 3

onset trajectories, 3

Developmental perspective, 87-88

Developmental psychopathology, 62, 64

Developmental trajectories, 41-42, 48, 52

early-onset, 41-42, 48

and prevention, 3, 9, 10, 12, 41, 52

interventions and, 48, 52

late-onset, 41-42, 52

and prevention, 9, 10, 12, 41-42, 52

late-onset and prevention programs, 42, 52

Discipline, parental, 63, 66

Does Not Work, 100, 102, 103, 105, 107, 110

Domestic violence, 135

Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 110-111

Drug trafficking, 73

E


Early interventions, 119-121

Educational programs on empathy and media, 93

Emergency room records, 1

Epidemic of youth violence, 1, 5, 9, 11, 17, 18-26, 27, 29, 32-34, 43, 48, 49, 52, 153, 154

firearm use as cause of, 49

Epidemiological research, 8

Esteem-building and interventions, 50

Ethnicity, as risk factor, 72

Evidence, level of, 8-9

Evidence, standards of scientific, 7-9

Experimental methods, limitations of, 89

Experimental research, 7-8

F


Families and Schools Together (FAST Track), 113, 142-143

Family clinical interventions, 115-117

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 19

firearm use and, 19-23, 27, 33, 34

Firearm training, 114

Firearms, 1, 19-23, 27, 33, 34, 49, 61

increased homicide rates attributable to greater use of in commission of crimes, 19, 20

high rate of juvenile deaths and, 21

international usage compared, 27

usage of difficult to track in crimes other than homicide, 21

usage tracked through hospital treatment, 21, 22

National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), 21

weapon-carrying trends, 23

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), 23, 31

at schools, 23

as cause of violence epidemic, 49

Functional Family Therapy (FFT), 115, 133

G


Gallup poll on school violence, 32

Gangs, 70, 71

gang-related activity, 32-33

fights, 42

responsible for majority of youth violence, 48

Get-tough laws and incarceration, 118, 119-121

Good Behavior Game, 109, 143-144

Graduation incentives, 120

Gun buyback programs, 114. See Firearms.

Guns and violence. See Firearms.

H


Hazard rate, 42, 43

defined, 42

sex and, 42

race and, 43

Heredity, as risk factor, 73

Hispanic youths, 29-30, 44, 70

age-specific prevalence, 44

Home visitation, 112

Homicide, criminal, 17, 20-22, 24, 25

defined, 17

arrest rates, 20, 21, 22, 24

role of firearms in, 20-23

Hyperactivity. See Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

I


I Can Problem Solve, 107, 144-145

Identification of ineffective programs, 103

Incident rate, 24, 25

defined, 24

Index crimes, 153

Ineffective primary prevention programs, 110-111, 114

Ineffective secondary prevention programs, 114

Ineffective tertiary prevention programs, 117-119

Intelligence of child and effect of media violence, 92

Intensive Protective Supervision Project, 117, 138

Interactive nature of new media, 87

International prevalence of youth violence, 26-27, 28

firearm access and, 27

International Self-Report Delinquency Study, 26-27

Internet, the, 92, 94

Intervention personnel, training and certification of, 155

Intervention programs, 155-156

public awareness of, 155-156

vs. incarceration, 155

Intervention. See Tertiary Prevention, Secondary Prevention, and Primary Prevention.

Interventions for youth violence, 3, 48, 52

Iowa Strengthening Families Program, 108, 146

IQ, 66

J


Justice system services, 117

Juvenile court, 133, 138

K


Koop, Surgeon General C. Everett, 4

L


Level of evidence, 8-9

Life skills training, 106, 137

Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT), 108, 147

Longitudinal and panel designs, 8

Longitudinal studies of media violence, 90

Longitudinal studies, 41, 42

identifying chronic violent offenders, 48

M


Mandatory gun ownership, 114

Marital and family therapy, 115

Maturation effect, defined, 43

Measuring youth violence, 17-18

by official crime statistics, 17-18

by confidential surveys, 17-18

Media self-regulation, 93

Media violence, 65, 87-94

sex and, 65

interactive nature of new media, 87

outcomes of, 87

developmental perspective and, 87-88

observational learning and, 88

exposure to, 88-89

content of, 88-89

major behavioral effects of, 89-91

causal links to violent behavior, 93

preventive efforts, 93

implications, 93-94

Media, the, 87-94

Mediating-effects analysis, 8

Medical or physical conditions as risk factors, 66

Mental disorders and violent behavior, 49-51

Meta-analysis, 8, 100, 101

Midwestern Prevention Project, 106-107, 137-138

Milieu treatment, 118

Minorities, racial and ethnic, 18, 20-21, 27-30, 31, 34

at greatest risk of school homicide, 31

Model programs, Level 1, 133-136

Functional Family Therapy (FFT), 133

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, 133-134

Multisystemic Therapy (MST), 134

Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses, 135

Seattle Social Development Project, 135-136

Model programs, Level 2, 137-138

Life Skills Training (LST), 137

Midwestern Prevention Project, the, 137-138

Model programs, replication and integrity of, 155

Monitoring the Future (MTF), 17-18, 25-29, 31, 43, 46-47, 156

Montreal Longitudinal Study, (Preventive Treatment Program, the), 111, 138-139

Moral-reasoning, problem-solving, and thinking skills interventions, 114

Multicontextual programs, 112

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, 117, 133-134

Multisystemic Therapy (MST), 116, 134

Music videos, 92

Myths about youth violence, 2, 5-6

that the epidemic is over, 5

that future offenders can be identified in early childhood, 5

that child abuse and neglect lead to violent behavior, 5

that African American and Hispanic youths have increased likelihood of serious violence, 5

that superpredators threaten the United States, 5

that "getting tough" reduces recidivism, 5-6

that "nothing works" to treat or prevent violent behavior, 6

that 1990s school violence affected mostly white or nonurban students, 6

that weapons-related school injuries have increased dramatically, 6

that most violent youths will be arrested for a violent crime, 6

N


National Crime Victimization Survey, 26, 31, 46

National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), 21

National Incident-Based Reporting System, 156

National Strategy for the Prevention of Suicide (1999), 3-4

National Television Violence Survey, the (NTVS), 88-89

National Youth Survey (NYS), 26, 41, 42-50

National Youth Gang Survey, 33

Native American youths, 29, 30

arrest ratios, 29, 30

Neighborhoods, 69

social disorganization, 69, 70

Nonpromotion to next grade, 110

O


Observational learning, 88

Offending, rates of, and reoffending rates, 46-47, 133

Onset and prevalence of serious violence, 42-44, 48

Onset of serious violence, peak ages of, 42, 43, 44

race and, 43

Onset of violence and timing of risk factors, 59-61

Onset trajectories of violence, 3

P


Parent Child Development Center Programs, 112, 147-148

Parent Teacher Associations, 94

Parent training programs, 108, 111-112

Parental influences, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 68, 75

Parental involvement, 50

Parental supervision of media intake, 94

Parent-Child Interaction Training Program, 112, 148

Parent-child relations, 66

Parents, role of in children's exposure to violence, 92

Peer programs, 110

Perry Preschool Program, 111, 139-140

Pittsburgh Youth Survey, 43

policy to reduce or prevent youth violence not proposed, 4

conclusions of, 11-13

Positive social orientation, 75

Positive youth development programs, 110

Poverty and socioeconomic status, 61, 66

Practices for prevention of youth violence, identification of, 100-104

Prenatal and early postnatal complications, 66

Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses, 112, 135

Preparing for the Drug-Free Years, 108, 148-149

Prevalence rate, 24, 25-27, 28

defined, 24

international prevalence of youth violence, 26-27

Prevention and intervention efforts, 1-2, 61, 99-125

risk factors and, 57, 59

protective factors and, 57

Prevention programs, 42, 52, 102-119

need to address both early- and late-onset violence, 42, 52

Model, 100-105, 107, 109

Promising, 100, 102-105, 107, 109

Does Not Work, 100, 102-105, 107, 110

primary prevention, 105-111

secondary prevention, 111-114

tertiary prevention, 114-119

cost-effectiveness of, 119-121

Prevention, primary, 105-111

Parental training programs, 108

Iowa Strengthening Families Program, 108

Preparing for the Drug-Free Years, 108, 148-149

Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT), 108

Behavior management programs, 108-110

behavior monitoring and reinforcement, 108

classroom management, 108-109

Seattle Social Development Project, 109

Bullying Prevention Program, 109

Good Behavior Game, 109

School Transitional Environmental Program (STEP), 109

Capacity-building programs, 110

Program Development Education, 110

Teaching strategies, 110

continuous progress programs, 110

cooperative learning, 110

Community-based programs, 110

positive youth development programs, 110

Ineffective primary prevention programs, 110-111

peer programs, 110

nonpromotion to next grade, 110

Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 110-111

Prevention, secondary (Intervention), 111-114

Parent training, 111-112

Montreal Longitudinal Study

(Preventive Treatment Program), 111

Syracuse Family Development Research Program, 111

Perry Preschool Program, 111

Parent Child Development Center Programs, 112

Parent-Child Interaction Training Program, 112

Home visitation, 112

Prenatal and Infancy Home Visitation by Nurses, 112

Multicontextual programs, 112-113

Yale Child Welfare Project, 112

CASASTART, 112-113

Families and Schools Together (FAST Track), 113

The Incredible Years Series, 113

Academic programs, 113-114

compensatory education, 113

preventive intervention program, 113

Quantum Opportunities Program, 113-114

Moral-reasoning, problem-solving, and thinking skills interventions, 114

Ineffective secondary prevention programs, 114

gun buyback programs, 114

firearm training, 114

mandatory gun ownership, 114

redirecting youth behavior, 114

shifting peer group norms, 114

Prevention, tertiary (Intervention), 114-119

meta-analyses of, 115

behavioral and skill development interventions, 115

family-based clinical interventions, 115-117

marital and family therapy, 115

Functional Family Therapy (FFT), 115

Multisystemic Therapy (MST), 116

Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care, 117

justice system services, 117

ineffective tertiary prevention programs, 117-119

boot camps, 117

residential programs, 118

milieu treatment, 118

behavioral token programs, 118

waivers to adult court, 118

counseling, 118

shock programs, 119

Scared Straight, 119

Preventive efforts, 93

Preventive Intervention program, 113

Preventive Intervention, 149

Primary prevention, 4, 105-110

Secondary prevention (Intervention), 111-114

Tertiary prevention (Intervention), 114-117

Probability samples, 8

Problem behavior, 66

Program Development Education, 110

Program implementation, effective principles, 123

Project I-Star, 137

Promising programs, Level 1, 138-142

Intensive Protective Supervision Project, 138

Montreal Longitudinal Study/Preventive Treatment Program, 138-139

Perry Preschool Program, 139-140

School Transitional Environmental Program (STEP), 140-141

Striving Together to Achieve Rewarding Tomorrows (CASASTART, formerly Children at Risk [CAR]), 141

Syracuse Family Development Research Program, 141-142

Promising programs, Level 2, 142-151

Bullying Prevention Program, 142

Families and Schools Together (FAST Track), 142-143

Good Behavior Game, 143-144

I Can Problem Solve, 144-145

The Incredible Years Series, 145-146

Iowa Strengthening Families Program, 146

Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT), 147

Parent Child Development Center Programs, 147-148

Parent-Child Interaction Training, 148

Preparing for the Drug-Free Years, 148-149

Preventive Intervention, 149

Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), 149-150

The Quantum Opportunities Program, 150-151

Yale Child Welfare Project, 151

Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), 107, 149-150

Protective factors, 57, 58, 62

defined, 57, 62

five domains used in this report, 57, 58

developmental psychopathology and, 62

Protective factors, proposed, 73-76

evidentiary standards for, 73

family, 75

individual, 74-75

intolerance of deviant and violent behavior, 74

school commitment, 74, 75-76

IQ, 74-75

sex, 75

positive social orientation, 75

peer group, 76

school, 74, 75-76

Psychological conditions, 68

as risk factors, 65, 68

Public health approach to youth violence, 2-3, 4-5

advantages of, 2, 4-5

and primary prevention, 4

vs. the medical model, 4

surveillance processes and, 4

epidemiological analyses and, 4

interventions and, 4

models and, 4

Public school programs, 110-111

Q


Quantum Opportunities Program, 113

R


Racial/ethnic minority populations, 2, 18, 20, 27-31, 33, 34, 43, 44, 46, 48, 51

probability of arrest and, 28-30, 34

and risk of being killed at school, 31

peak age of onset of violence and, 43

hazard rate and, 43

age-specific prevalence of violence and, 44

cumulative prevalence of violence and, 46

role of victimization and, 51

violence in adulthood and, 51

gang activity and, 70

as a risk factor, 72

Racial bias, 18, 30

Randomization, 8

Rape, forcible, 17, 19, 21, 42

defined, 17

arrest rates, 19, 21

Rates of offending and violent careers, 46-47

mean annual offending rate unchanged, 46

active involvement, defined, 47

career length, defined, 47

Recidivism, 117

Recommendations, informal, of this report, 154-156

Redirecting youth behavior, 114

Research opportunities and needs, recommended, 154

effectiveness, 154

firearm safety, 154

media effects, 154

violence prevention programs, 155

Research, multidisciplinary, 7-9

standards of scientific evidence for, 7-9

experimental research, 7-8

randomization, 8

mediating-effects analysis, 8

meta-analysis, 8

epidemiological research, 8

probability samples, 8

cross-sectional studies, 8

longitudinal and panel designs, 8

experimental studies, 8

Residential programs, 118

Risk factors and protective factors, in general, 57-63

Risk factors for youth violence, 57-77

Risk factors in adolescence, 67-73

relationships with parents and, 68

community, 70-71

social disorganization, 70

neighborhood violence and criminal adults, 71

drug use, 71

family, 69

individual, 68-69

psychological conditions, 68

aggressiveness, 68

sex and, 68

antisocial behavior, 68

substance use, 69

peer group, 70

school, 69-70

school violence and gang activity, 70

Risk factors in childhood, 63-67

exposure to violence, 64

community, 67

family, 66-67

poverty and socioeconomic status, 66

antisocial parents, 66

parent-child relations, 66

broken homes, 66

child neglect, 66, 67

individual, 64-66

substance use, 64-65

sex and, 64-65

risk markers, 64-65

aggression, 64-65

psychological conditions, 65

media violence, 65

antisocial behavior, 65-66

medical or physical conditions, 66

peer group, 67

school, 67

Risk factors, unexpected findings, 71-73

conduct disorder, 69-70

race, 72

ethnicity, 72

child abuse, 72

heredity, 73

drug trafficking, 71, 73

Risk factors, 57-62

defined, 67, 58-59

intervention and, 61

predictive value, 57

developmental progression toward violence and, 59-61

limitations, 61-62

five domains used in this report, 57, 58

differentiated from causes, 57-59

biological basis, lack of, 59

multiple, 59

race and, 61

sex and, 61

violence or exposure to violence, 64

medical or physical conditions as, 66

Risk factors, reduction of, 103

Risk markers, 64-65

race/ethnicity, 12, 72, 77

defined, 64-65

male sex, 64, 65

Robbery, 17, 21, 42

defined, 17

arrest rates, 19, 21

with a weapon, prevalence rates, 25, 26, 27, 42

Rochester Youth Development Survey, 26, 33

S


Scared Straight, 119

Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, 50

School commitment, protective factor of, 74, 75-76

School functioning, attendance, and dropout rates, 139-141

School Transitional Environmental Program (STEP), 109, 140-141

School violence, 30-33

homicides, 30-31

nonfatal injuries, 31

weapons at school, 31

gang activity, 70

gangs at school, 32

perceptions of, 32-33

School-based programs, 110-111

Schools, 69

culture of violence in, 69

in socially disorganized neighborhoods, 69

importance of dominant peer culture in, 70

Science base, need to build, 154

Seattle Social Development Project, 109, 135-136

Secondary prevention programs, ineffective, 114

Self-esteem, link to violent behavior, 50

Self-reports, or surveys, of violent behavior, 1, 17-19, 23-34, 42-51

advantages and limitations of, 18

exaggeration or overreporting and, 18

longitudinal surveys, 17

cross-sectional surveys, 17-18

Monitoring the Future (MTF), 17-18, 25-29, 31

from victims, 24

disparities with police reports and arrest figures, 24-27, 29, 30

sex and race, differences by, 27-31, 33, 34

Serious violence, 3

as defined by city surveys, 42

Serious violent youths, 42

defined, 42

chronic violent offenders, 48

responsible for great majority of crime, 48

arrest records of, 48

identifiable in childhood, 48

gang membership and, 48

interventions and, 48

Serious youth violence, 153

emergence as sizable health problem, 153

Sex, 2, 42-46, 59, 61, 64-65

age-specific prevalence of violence and, 41, 43, 44

hazard rate and, 43

cumulative prevalence of violence and, 45-46

victimization and, 51

and risk factors, 65

gang activity and, 70

Sex and behavioral effects of media violence, 90, 91

Sex and race, differences in arrest rates by, 27, 29-30, 34

differences in self-reports, 27-31, 33, 34

Sex differences in violence, 28-30, 34

Shifting peer group norms, 114

Shock programs, 119

Siblings, diffusion effects on, 133

Skill- and competency-building programs, 106-107

Social case work, 118

Social disorganization, 69, 70

Socioeconomic status, 61, 66

Standards of scientific evidence, 7-9

Standards, scientific, for determining program effectiveness, 102-105

rigorous experimental design, 102-103

significant deterrent effect, 102-103

replication, 102-103

low attrition, 102

adequate measurement, 102

statistical significance, 102

risk factors, reduction of, 102

sustainability of effects, 102-103

identification of ineffective programs, 103

Statistics, crime, 17

as measure of youth violence, 18

public health, 17, 18

Striving Together to Achieve Rewarding Tomorrows (CASASTART, formerly Children at Risk [CAR]), 141

Substance use and abuse, 49-51, 61, 64, 69, 71, 137, 138, 141

Suicide, 3-4

Superpredators, myth of, 48-49

Surveillance and the public health approach, 17-18

importance of in public health, 17-18

Surveys of adolescent violence

U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 42

city surveys, 42-51

serious violence, as defined by city surveys, 42

aggravated assault, 42

robbery, 42

gang fights, 42

rape, 42

Surveys. See Self-reports of violent behavior.

Sustainability of effects, 103

Syracuse Family Development Research Program, 111, 141-142

T


Teaching strategies, 110

Television violence, 87, 88-88, 90-91, 88-89

The Incredible Years Series, 113, 145-146

The Quantum Opportunities Program, 150-151

Three-strikes law, 119

Time lag, problem of, 120

U


U.S. Department of Education, 30-31

U.S. Department of Justice, 30-31

Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program, 19, 25, 26, 153, 156

inexact nature of UCR numbers, 19

University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, 25

V


V-chip, 93, 94

Victimization and perpetration, 3, 51

data, 1

relationship to violence, 51

parental involvement and, 51

Video games, 92, 94

Violence as a risk factor, 64

as hindrance to parent-child bonding, 64, 66

Violence index, 26, 27

defined, 27

Violence on television, 87, 88-89, 89-91

defined, 88

ratings for media, 93

Violence, costs of, 119

exposure to, 64

W


Waivers to adult court, 118

Workshop on Violence and Public Health (1985), 4

Wraparound services, 117

Y


Yale Child Welfare Project, 112, 151

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), 23, 31

defined, 23

Youth violence, 2, 3

designation as public health concern, 2

intervention, 3

developmental dynamics of, 41-52

magnitude of, 17-34

epidemic of, 17, 18-25, 33

measurement of, 17-18

monitoring of. See Surveillance and the public health approach.

prevention and intervention, 99-125

risk factors for, 57-77

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General, 1-4

purpose of, 1-4

focus of, 2-3

developmental perspective on violence, 3

hate crimes not addressed, 3

victims not addressed, 3

violence against intimate partners

not addressed, 3

self-directed violence not addressed, 3-4


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