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United States Marine Corps - Marines - General Who
Marines, The Few, the Proud

Official Web page for Marines magazine crossword puzzle solution

Marines

From the October - December 2003 issue of Marines magazine.
To see the issue in its entirety, please visit our Web site http://www.usmc.mil/marinesmagazine

General Who?

ACROSS
1. Known as father of Marine Corps aviation
5. Headquarters Marine Corps location
11. Chaplain's aide
12. He commanded 5th MarDiv on Iwo Jima during WWII
13. This 'Spider' is second-in-command
16. Linked armor
17. Coke or Pepsi
18. Positive or negative atom
19. Record of Emergency Data
20. WWII ace scored 124 enemy planes during Okinawa campaign
25. Listening post
27. Shallow ______
28. Commander of American Legation Guard in Peking China during Boxer Rebellion
29. Conquer
30. Equal
32. Sympathetic noise
34. Slap
36. Time period
37. Read the _________ (two words)
38. Scottish plaid
42. Evade capture
43. Sometimes called father of modern amphibious warfare (two words)
44. Trap
45. This 'Chesty' Marine is a highly decorated individual
48. Small rodent
49. First woman to wear a Marine star
50. Inscribe
52. Geek
55. Drive out
59. An infantry training camp in N.C. is named for him
60. USMC job
61. Noah's boat
62. 'Red Mike' commanded a Raider Bn. At 'Bloody Ridge' in WWII
63. 365 days
66. CG for MCB Camp Pendleton
70. Fish locomotion
72. First female Lt. Gen. in the military
74. See
76. What crunches work
77. Vehicle operator
79. Site of famous flag raising
80. Home to Camp Smedley D. Butler
81. He led 3rd MarDiv on Iwo Jima during WWII

DOWN
1. Corp's first WWII ace downed 10 aircraft during Guadalcanal campaign
2. Five cents
3. One who denies or is skeptical
4. This 'Grand Old Man' reached the rank of Brevet Brig. Gen.
5. Cleverly ironic
6. By land, air or ____
7. Bubble ____
8. Electrical measure
9. Formation travel
10. E-4
13. Nearest to
14. Zero
15. Perform
19. Not cooked
21. Poise
22. Flightless bird
23. _____-face
24. He commanded troops during the Battle of Belleau Wood in WWI
26. Site of WWII surprise attack against the United States
27. Slated to be next Commandant of the Marine Corps
31. In 1868, this Commandant Oked eagle, globe & anchor design
33. 18th Commandant was also first to serve as a four star
35. Imperfect
39. Twice-awarded Medal of Honor recipient
40. At no time
41. This general joined the Corps to see space
45. Southern California base is named for this general
46. Speeds
47. CG for MCB Camp Lejuene
51. Fire at the enemy
53. Show off (abbrev.)
54. Halt
56. This tall general is currently the top dog
57. By the ____ of your teeth
58. 9th Commandant was the first to hold the rank of Maj. Gen.
59. This leader insisted 'Every Marine a rifleman first.'
61. First active-duty Marine aviator to wear four stars
64. This 13th Commandant sends his birthday greetings
65. Branch
68. Inspiration
69. This ACMC earned the Medal of Honor for his actions in Korea
71. Singing voice
73. Hard yellow-brown wood
74. Slant
75. Not false
76. Hand extender
78. Recruit trainer



 

Across

1.  Lt. Col. Alfred Austell Cunningham was the Marine Corps' first aviator and eventually became known as the father of Marine Corps aviation. He was born March 8, 1882, in Atlanta. He accepted a commission as second lieutenant in the Marine Corps in January 1909 when he was 27 years old. The year before Cunningham entered the Marine Corps, the United States Navy had first taken official notice of the aero plane as a possible weapon for use in the fleet when in 1908, Orville Wright demonstrated his plane to government officials and Naval officers at Fort Myer, Va.

In 1911, then Lt. Cunningham, was stationed at the Marine Barracks, Philadelphia. He had become imbued with a fervent desire to fly when he ascended in a balloon eight years before, and was by now experimenting with an airplane, the famous "Noisy Nan." He had leased it for $25 a month from a civilian aviator, risking his neck if not his career in his aerial activities. "Aerial", perhaps, is a misnomer, because Noisy Nan never actually became airborne but Cunningham's enthusiasm continued to soar even as he hoped she would. His profound faith in the airplane and his love of flying finally was rewarded. On May 16, 1912, Cunningham was detached from duty at the Navy Yard, Philadelphia, and ordered to the aviation camp the Navy had set up at Annapolis, Va., to learn to fly. He reported May 22, 1912, which is recognized as the birthday of Marine Corps aviation. Actual flight training was given at the Burgess Plant at Marblehead, Mass., because only the builders of planes could fly in those days and after two hours and forty minutes of instruction, Cunningham soloed August 20, 1912.  Thus the Marine Corps had its first pilot.

Cunningham's contribution to naval aviation and the Marine Corps cannot be measured. He gave the very best years of his life pioneering in flying and risked his life and health when few appreciated the risk, the discouragements, and frustrations the early aviator faced. Though his was the unsung role of the pioneer and brought little glory when he lived, the toll of Japanese aircraft blasted from the Pacific skies by Marine planes and other spectacular accomplishments of Marine aviators in World War II and subsequent conflicts of the 20th century are his monument.

Cunningham died at Sarasota, Fla., May 27, 1939.

12.  Lt. Gen. Keller E. Rockey commanded the 5th Marine Division in the battle of Iwo Jima in World War II and the 3rd Amphibious Corps during the occupation of North China following the war. For exceptionally meritorious service with the Fifth Marine Division during this battle, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal (Navy). The citation for the latter reads in part:

"…in a position of great responsibility as Commanding General of the Fifth Marine Division prior to and during the seizure of enemy-held Iwo Jima from February 19 to March 26, 1945…Major General Rockey skillfully welded the new and untried Division into a formidable fighting command.

“…a bold tactician, he landed his forces at the base of Mount Suribachi. Deploying his units according to plan, he quickly cut the island in two. Directing the assault with superb generalship he moved his forces inexorably forward and captured the mountain. Continuing his attack to the north, he waged furious battle until he had succeeded in annihilating the last pocket of Japanese resistance."

Lt. Gen. Rockey was born Sept. 22, 1888, in Columbia City, Ind. He was a graduate of Gettysburg College with a Bachelor of Science degree, and was a student at Yale University. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps, Nov. 18, 1913.

Lt. Gen. Rockey was assigned as Director, Division of Plans and Policies at Headquarters Marine Corps, in August 1942, and one year later assumed duties as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. In February 1944, he went to the Pacific where he was successively Commanding General of the 5th Marine Division on Iwo Jima and the 3rd Amphibious Corps.

He retired Sept. 1, 1950.

In addition to the Navy Cross, Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross; Distinguished Service Cross (Army); Distinguished Service Medal (Navy) and Distinguished Service Medal (Army), his decorations and medals include the Presidential Unit Citation, Iwo Jima 1945; Mexican Service Medal, 1916; Victory Medal with Aisne and Defensive Sector Clasps, France, 1918; Haitian Campaign Medal, 1919-1920; Expeditionary Medal, Haiti, 1920-22; Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal, 1928-29; American Defense Service Medal; Asiatic-Pacific Theater Campaign Medal with two bronze stars; World War II Victory Medal; Nicaraguan Medal of Merit; the Order of the Cloud and Banner, Second Class, China, 1945; and Legion of Honor, France. He was also entitled to wear the French Fourragere.

He died of a heart attack, June 6, 1970, in Harwich Port, Mass.

13.  Gen. William L. "Spider" Nyland assumed his current duties as the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps Sept. 10, 2002.

Gen. Nyland was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps under the NROTC program upon graduation from the University of New Mexico in 1968. In addition to attaining an M.S. degree from the University of Southern California, his formal military education includes The Basic School (1968), Naval Aviation Flight Training (NFO) (1969), Amphibious Warfare School (1975), Navy Fighter Weapons School (Top Gun) (1977), College of Naval Command and Staff, Naval War College (1981), and Air War College (1988).

Gen. Nyland flew 122 combat missions in Vietnam with VMFA-314 and VMFA-115.

His personal decorations include: Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, the Air Medal with eight Strike/Flight awards, and Joint Service Commendation Medal.

20.  Lt. Gen. George C. Axtell was a World War II ace and Navy Cross winner for heroism during the battle for Okinawa.

He was born in Ambridge, Pa., Nov. 29, 1920, and graduated from high school there in 1938. He attended the University of Alabama before enlisting in the Marine Corps in July, 1940 as a Marine Aviation Cadet. He holds a Bachelor of Laws degree and a Master of Arts degree (Comptroller) from George Washington University. He was assigned to flight school and was commissioned as a second lieutenant and designated a Naval Aviator in May, 1941.

He was commanding officer of Marine Fighter Squadron 323 from July 1943 until June 1945, from the date of its formation at Cherry Point, N.C., and then throughout the Okinawa campaign. During the Okinawa campaign, VMF-323 scored 124 enemy planes.

Ordered to the Far East in September 1965, he served as Chief of Staff, III Marine Amphibious Force, and was awarded his first Legion of Merit with Combat "V", for service in this capacity. During March 1966, he organized and commanded the Force Logistics Command, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, located in the Republic of Vietnam. A second Legion of Merit with Combat "V" was awarded him for exceptionally meritorious conduct during this assignment. Upon his return to the United States in December 1966, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general, and assigned to Headquarters Marine Corps. For his service as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, from December 1966 until June 1970, he was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of his third Legion of Merit.

In addition to the Navy Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal, his awards and decorations include the Legion of Merit with Combat "V", and Gold Stars in lieu of second and third awards, the Distinguished Flying Cross with Gold Star in lieu of a subsequent award, the Air Medal with one Silver Star in lieu of second through sixth awards, the Presidential Unit Citation, the Navy Unit Commendation with one bronze star, the American Defense Service Medal, the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, the World War II Victory Medal, the National Defense Service Medal with one bronze star, the Korean Service Medal with two bronze stars, the Vietnam Service Medal, the Korean Presidential Unit Citation, the United Nations Service Medal, and the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.

He retired from active service Sept. 1, 1974.

28.  Lt. Gen. John Twiggs Myers earned a permanent place in Marine Corps history as commander of the American Legation Guard at Peking, China, during the Boxer Rebellion.

He was the great grandson of Gen. John Twiggs, a Revolutionary War hero, and his father, Abraham C. Myers, was a West Point graduate who fought in the Seminole and Mexican Wars and later served as Quartermaster General of the Confederate Army. At the end of the Civil War, Abraham C. Myers took his family to Wiesbaden, Germany, where John was born Jan. 29, 1871. The family returned to the United States in 1876, and John attended public schools in Washington, and Wilkinson's Preparatory School at Annapolis, Md., before entering the U.S. Naval Academy in September 1887. Graduating in 1892, he continued to hold the rank of naval cadet until he was appointed an assistant engineer in August 1894. He was transferred from the Navy to the Marine Corps on March 6, 1895, and accepted appointment as a second lieutenant the following day.

In May 1900, he was assigned to the USS Newark. Meanwhile, a wave of violence, led by an athletic society known as the Boxers, was erupting in China, where a number of foreigners were killed or subjected to gross indignities. The Imperial Government, sympathizing with the movement, did little to stop it, and the foreigners in Peking were soon forced to the take refuge in the legations there. On May 28, E.H. Conger, the American Minister at Peking, telegraphed the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Asiatic Squadron at Taku to send an armed force for the protection of the legation. The following day, Myers set out for that city as commander of a force of 48 Marines and three sailors from the Oregon and Brooklyn. Along with detachments of British, Russian, French, Italian and Japanese Marines, they reached Peking at 11 o'clock on the night of May 31, just before the city was encircled.

On June 24, serious fighting broke out on the walls of the legations as hordes of Boxers, armed with swords, spears, clubs, stones, noisemakers and several three-inch field pieces, attempted to overwhelm the handful of foreign troops. A German detachment repulsed the first attack and the Marines hurled back a second, causing heavy losses amongst the boxers. After that the Chinese changed their tactics and began building a tower on the ancient wall above the American Legation, only about 25 feet from the Marines' position. Since this would have allowed the Boxers to fire at will on the troops and civilians below, Minister Conger reported this danger to the British Minister, Sir Claude M. MacDonald, who had been picked by common consent as commander of the international defense. He agreed to the American's suggestion that an attack should be made on the tower and the Chinese barricade behind it.

Myers was picked to head the attacking force, composed of himself and 14 other American Marines, 16 Russian and 25 British Marines. His plan was to have the Russians hit the barricade from the North, while the American and British Marines were to assault the tower, then fight their way to the barricade, along a sort of trench, which ran from it to the tower. At a signal from Myers, the attack began about three o'clock on the morning of July 3.

The Anglo-American force, with Myers in the lead, found the tower empty when they reached it, then proceeded along the trench, where they ran into bitter, hand-to-hand fighting. Myers was badly wounded by a spear during the action in the trench, but the attack continued until the barricade was in friendly hands. In addition to Myers, the allied losses included two U.S. Marines and one Russian killed and two Russian and three British Marines severely wounded. Estimates of enemy losses ran as high as 50 dead. The British Minister called this action" one of the most successful operations of the siege, as it rendered our position on the wall, which had been precarious, comparatively strong." Largely because of it, the disheartened Boxers agreed to an uneasy truce on July 16.

Myers was brevetted major and advanced four numbers in rank for his bravery, and in President McKinley's message to Congress in February 1901, he mentioned the captain by name. British appreciation was demonstrated a few years afterward, when a monument to the Royal Marines was erected outside the Admiralty in London, facing Buckingham Palace. One of the bas-reliefs on that memorial shows Myers leading the British Marines in the attack on the Boxers.

He was placed on the retired list Feb. 1, 1935, at the statutory retirement age of 64. A major general when he retired, he was promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list in 1942, when the law was passed authorizing such promotions for officers who had been specially commended in combat.

A veteran of 40 years as a Marine officer, he retired from the Corps in 1935, after a career that included the Spanish-American War; the Philippine Insurrection; World War I service as Fleet Marine Officer of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet; expeditionary service in the Haitian, Santo Domingo, Cuban and Mexican campaigns; and a total of nearly ten years of sea duty. His medals and decorations included the Marine Corps Brevet Meal, Purple Heart, Spanish Campaign Medal, Philippine Campaign Medal, China Campaign Medal; Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, Mexican Service Medal and the World War I Victory Medal with Armed Guard clasp.

Lt. Gen. Myers died April 17, 1952, at his home in Coconut Grove, Fla., and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

43.  Gen. Holland McTyeire Smith, the officer who led Marines to victory island hopping across the Pacific during World War II, is sometimes referred to as "the father of modern U.S. amphibious warfare." he was one of America's top commanders in the Pacific during World War II.

He was born April 20, 1882, in Seale, Ala. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from Alabama Polytechnic Institute in 1901, obtained his Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Alabama in 1903 and practiced law in Montgomery, Ala., for a year before he was appointed a Marine second lieutenant March 20, 1905. Later he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree by Alabama Polytechnic Institute.

On the eve of World War II Gen. Smith directed extensive Army, Navy and Marine amphibious training, which was a major factor in successful U.S. landings in both the Atlantic and Pacific. Later he helped prepare U.S. Army and Canadian troops for the Kiska and Attu landings, then led the V Amphibious Corps in the assaults on the Gilberts, the Marshalls, and Saipan and Tinian in the Marianas. In the latter operation, besides the V Amphibious Corps, he commanded all Expeditionary Troops in the Marianas, including those, which recaptured Guam. After that he served as the first Commanding General of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and headed Task Force 56 (Expeditionary Troops) at Iwo Jima, which included all the assault troops in that battle.

Moving to San Diego in August 1942, the general took command of the Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, under which he completed the amphibious indoctrination of the 2nd and 3rd Marine Divisions before they went overseas and the 7th Army Division and other units involved in the Aleutians operation. The Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, was later redesignated the V Amphibious Corps, and in September 1943, as commander of that unit, General Smith arrived at Pearl Harbor to begin planning for the Gilberts campaign. He continued to head the V Amphibious Corps until August 1944, when he was named Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific , at Pearl Harbor. In addition to that post, he commanded Task Force 56 at Iwo Jima before returning to the United States in July 1945, to head the Marine Training and Replacement Command at Camp Pendleton, California.

He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for his part in training America's amphibious forces on both coasts; a Gold Star in lieu of a second for his planning and execution of the Gilbert and Marshall Islands operations; a Gold Star in lieu of a third for similar service in the Marianas; and a Gold Star in lieu of a fourth for his part in the invasion and capture of Iwo Jima. The general also holds the Croix de Guerre with palm and the Purple Heart Medal. His other medals and decorations include the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal with three bronze stars; the Mexican Service Medal; the Dominican Campaign Medal, the World War I Victory Medal with five sector clasps; the Army of Occupation of Germany Medal; the American Defense Service Medal with Base clasp; the American Area Campaign Medal; the Asiatic-Pacific Area Campaign Medal with one silver star in lieu of five bronze stars; the World War II Victory Medal; the Dominican Order of the First Merit; and the British Order of Commander of the Bath.

He retired in 1946 after a 41-year career that included sea duty, expeditionary service from the Philippines to Haiti and World War I combat in France as a lieutenant general.

He was promoted to general on the retired list for having been especially commended in combat.

He died Jan. 12, 1967, at the U.S. Naval Hospital, San Diego.

45.  Lt. Gen. Lewis Burwell Puller earned the nickname “Chesty.” A colorful veteran of the Korean fighting, four World War II campaigns and expeditionary service in China, Nicaragua and Haiti, he was one of the most decorated Marines in the Corps, and the only Leatherneck ever to win the Navy Cross five times for heroism and gallantry in action.

Born June 26, 1898, at West Point, Va., He attended Virginia Military Institute until enlisting in the Marine Corps in August 1918. He was appointed a Marine Reserve second lieutenant June 16, 1919, but due to the reduction of the Marine Corps after World War I, was placed on inactive duty ten days later. He rejoined the Marines as an enlisted man on the 30th of that month, to serve as an officer in the Gendarmerie d'Haiti, a military force set up in that country under a treaty with the United States. Most of its officers were U.S. Marines, while its enlisted personnel were Haitians. After almost five years in Haiti, where he saw frequent action against the Caco rebels, he returned to the United States in March 1924. He was commissioned a Marine second lieutenant that same month.

He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and his fifth Navy Cross for heroism in action as commander of the 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, during the bitter fight to break out of Korea's Chosin Reservoir area. The latter citation, covering the period from December 5 to 10, 1950, states in part:

"Fighting continuously in sub-zero weather against a vastly outnumbering hostile force, (the then) Colonel Puller drove off repeated and fanatical enemy attacks upon his Regimental defense sector and supply points. Although the area was frequently covered by grazing machine gun fire and intense artillery and mortar fire, he coolly moved among his troops to insure their correct tactical employment, reinforced the lines as the situation demanded and successfully defended his perimeter, keeping open the main supply routes for the movement of the Division.

"During the attack from Koto-ri to Hungman, he expertly utilized his Regiment as the Division rear guard, repelling two fierce enemy assaults which severely threatened the security of the unit, and personally supervised the care and prompt evacuation of all casualties.

"By his unflagging determination, he served to inspire his men to heroic efforts in defense of their positions and assured the safety of much valuable equipment which would otherwise have been lost to the enemy. His skilled leadership, superb courage and valiant devotion to duty in the face of overwhelming odds reflect the highest credit upon Colonel Puller and the United States Naval Service.”

A Marine officer and enlisted man for 37 years, Lt. Gen. Puller served at sea or overseas for all but ten of those years, including a hitch as commander of the "Horse Marines" in China. Excluding medals from foreign governments, he won a total of 14 personal decorations in combat, plus a long list of campaign medals, unit citation ribbons, and other awards.

The general holds the Navy Cross with Gold Stars in lieu of four additional awards; the Army Distinguished Service Cross; the Army Silver Star Medal; the Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and Gold Star in lieu of a second award; the Bronze Star Medal; the Air Medal with Gold Stars in lieu of second and third awards; and the Purple Heart Medal. His other medals and decorations include the Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon with four bronze stars; the Marine Corps Good Conduct Medal with one bronze star; the World War I Victory Medal with West Indies clasp; the Haitian Campaign Medal; the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal; the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal with one bronze star; the China Service Medal; the American Defense Service Medal with Base clasp; the American Area Campaign Medal; the Asiatic-Pacific Area Campaign Medal with four bronze stars; the World War II Victory Medal; the National Defense Service Medal; the Korean Service Medal with one silver star in lieu of five bronze stars; the United Nations Service Medal; the Haitian Medaille Militaire; the Nicaraguan Presidential Medal of Merit with Diploma; the Nicaraguan Cross of Valor with Diploma; the Republic of Korea's Ulchi Medal with Gold Star; and the Korean Presidential Unit Citation with Oak Leaf Cluster.

He was promoted to his final rank and placed on the temporary disability retired list Nov. 1, 1955. He died Oct. 11, 1971, in Hampton, Va.

49.  Brig. Gen. Margaret A. Brewer was the first female general officer in the Marine Corps.

Born in Durand, Mich., in 1930, she received her primary education in Michigan but graduated from the Catholic High School in Baltimore, Md., prior to entering the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. She received a bachelor's degree in geography in January 1952, and was commissioned a Marine second lieutenant in March of that year.

She was selected as the seventh Director of Women Marines on Feb. 1, 1973.

On July 1, 1977, then Col. Brewer assumed duty as Deputy Director of the Division of Information, Headquarters Marine Corps, when the Director of Women Marines' office was disbanded because of the strides made in integrating women into an expanded role in the Corps. For meritorious service as the Director of Women Marines, she was presented the Legion of Merit by the Commandant of the Marine Corps on June 30, 1977.

She was nominated for appointment to the grade of brigadier general in April 1978. She was appointed to that grade and assumed duty as Director of Information on May 11, 1978, at which time she became the first female general officer in the U.S. Marine Corps.

She retired on July 1, 1980. She had been serving as the Director of Public Affairs, Headquarters Marine Corps.

59. Gen. Roy Stanley Geiger commanded both air and ground units during World War II and was the first Marine to lead an Army.  A training camp at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejuene, N.C., was named for him. More than 12,000 Marines undergoing Marine Combat Training every year at Camp Geiger

Gen. Geiger was born on Jan. 25, 1885, in Middleburg, Fla. He attended Florida State Normal and received an LLB from Stetson University, following which he enlisted in the Marine Corps Nov. 2, 1907. He was commissioned a second lieutenant Feb. 5, 1909.

Gen. Geiger commanded the III Amphibious Corps in the battle for Okinawa where, upon the death in action of Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, commanding general of the Tenth Army, he assumed command and led the Tenth Army to the successful conclusion of World War II's final campaign.

For his part in this action he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal (Army). His citation reads in part:

"Going ashore with the early landing elements on 1 April 1945, he began a bitter three-month campaign…with outstanding professional skill, forceful leadership and unswerving determination, he directed his units…repeatedly disregarding personal safety to secure a first hand estimate of the battle situation and inspiring his men to heights of bravery and accomplishment."

In addition to the Navy Cross with Gold Star and the Distinguished Service Medal with two Gold Stars, his decorations and medals include the Distinguished Service Medal (Army) Okinawa; Presidential Unit Citation, Guadalcanal, 1942; Nicaraguan Campaign Medal, Nicaragua, 1912; Expeditionary Medal with two Bronze Stars, Nicaragua 1912, China 1914, Haiti 1919 and 1929; Victory Medal with Ypres Lys Clasp, France 1918; Haitian Campaign Medal, Haiti 1919 and 1920; Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal, Nicaragua 1931; American Defense Service Medal; Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal; American Campaign Medal; World War II Victory Medal; Dominican Medal of Military Merit; Nicaraguan Medal of Distinction and Diploma.

He died Jan. 23, 1947 at the National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Md., and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. He was promoted to four-star rank posthumously by the 80th Congress to be effective from Jan. 23, 1947.

62.  Maj. Gen. Merritt Austin Edson, known as ‘Red Mike’, commanded a Raider Battalion at ‘Bloody Ridge’ during World War II.

Born in Rutland, Vt., April 25, 1897, and reared in Chester, Vt., Maj. Gen. Edson attended the University of Vermont for two years. Military service interrupted, however, and on June 27, 1916, as a private with the First Vermont National Guard Regiment, he was sent to Eagle Pass, Texas, for duty on the Mexican border. He returned to the University in September 1916, but joined the Marine Corps Reserve June 26 of the following year. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Regular Marine Corps Oct. 9, 1917.

In June 1941, he transferred to Quantico, Va., to command the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, which was redesignated the 1st Separate Battalion in January 1942. The training exercises which he conducted in the succeeding months with Navy high-speed transports (APD's) led to the organization of the 1st Marine Raider Battalion in early 1942. This unit was the prototype of every Marine Raider Battalion formed throughout the war.

Col. Edson's introduction to the Pacific theater of operations began with the overseas training of his raider command in American Samoa. On Aug. 7, 1942, the Free World was thrilled by the news that his raiders, together with the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines, had landed on Tulagi, British Solomon Islands. Two days of severe fighting secured this strategic island. This action was followed by raids on Savo Island and at Tasimboko, on Guadalcanal. Col. Edson was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross for his successful conduct of the Tulagi operation.

His crowning glory and the battle for which he will be long remembered by Marines and a grateful American people was the defense of Lunga Ridge on Guadalcanal on the nights of  Sept. 13-14, 1942. His Raider Battalion, with two companies of the 1st Parachute Battalion attached, had been sent to a ridgeline a short distance south of Henderson Field. Here they were supposed to get a short rest. When the Japanese forces unexpectedly and viciously attacked the position on the first evening, they penetrated the left center of Col. Edson's line of resistance, thus forcing a withdrawal to a reserve position.

Here approximately 800 Marines withstood the repeated assaults of more than 2,500 Japanese on the "Bloody Ridge," as it became known to the world. To the men of the 1st Raider Battalion, however, who sustained 256 casualties, it became "Edson's Ridge," in high honor of the officer who "was all over the place, encouraging, cajoling, and correcting as he continually exposed himself to enemy fire." His nickname, "Red Mike," originating from his red beard worn in Nicaragua days, was also his code name during this battle. From then on he was known by all as "Red Mike."

The citation for the Medal of Honor he received for this action read in part as follows:

“Facing a formidable Jap attack which had crashed through our front lines, he successfully withdrew his forward units to a reserve line with minimum casualties.

When then the enemy, in a subsequent series of violent assaults engaged our force, Colonel Edson, although continuously exposed to hostile fire throughout the night, personally directed defense of the reserve position against a fanatical foe of greatly superior numbers.

“By his astute leadership and gallant devotion to duty, he enabled his men, despite severe losses, to cling tenaciously to their position on the vital ridge, thereby retaining command, not only of the Guadalcanal airfield, but also of the First Division's entire offensive installations in the surrounding area.”

 

In addition to the Medal of Honor, two Navy Crosses, a Silver Star and two Legions of Merit, his numerous decorations included the Presidential Unit Citation with two bronze stars; the Mexican Service Medal; World War I Victory Medal with Maltese Cross; Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal; China Service Medal with bronze star; American Defense Service Medal with bronze star; American Campaign Medal; Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with six bronze stars; the World War II Victory Medal; the Distinguished Service Order (British Empire) and the Nicaraguan Medal of Merit.

He retired from active duty Aug. 1, 1947, at the age of 50 years, at which time he was promoted to major general. He died Aug. 14, 1955, in Washington. He completed more than 30 years in the military service of his country.

66. Maj. Gen. William G. Bowdon currently serves as the commanding general, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

He graduated from Louisiana State University in 1970. In August 1970, he entered the Marine Corps and reported to NAS Pensacola, Fla., for flight training. He received his wings at NAS Kingsville, Texas in February 1972.

 On June 24, 2002 he took over as commanding general, Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.

Maj. Gen. Bowdon's personal awards include the Legion of Merit, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, and the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal.

72.  Lt. Gen. Carol A. Mutter became the first woman in the Marine Corps to attain 3-star rank Sept. 1, 1996.

She was born in Greeley, Colo., in 1945. In 1967, she was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps upon graduation from the University of Northern Colorado, in Greeley. In addition to holding a B.A. degree in Mathematics Education and an honorary doctorate from the University of North Carolina, General Mutter has an M.A. degree in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College at Newport, R.I. and both an M.S. and an honorary doctorate degree from Salve Regina College, also in Newport.

Lt. Gen. Mutter’s career is filled with firsts for women in the military.

In July 1988, as a Colonel, she joined the U.S. Space Command, J-3 (Operations) Directorate in Colorado Springs becoming the first woman to gain qualification as a Space Director. After initially serving as a Command Center Crew Commander/Space Director, she became the Division Chief, responsible for the operation of the Space Command Commander in Chief's Command Center.

In June 1992, she transferred to Okinawa, this time as the first woman of general/flag officer rank to command a major deployable tactical command, the 3rd Force Service Support Group, III Marine Expeditionary Force, U.S. Marine Forces Pacific.

In June 1994, she became the first woman Marine major general and the senior woman on active duty in the armed services. Upon advancement to lieutenant general in 1996, she became the first woman Marine and the second woman in the history of the armed services to wear three stars.

Her medals and decorations include the Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, Navy Achievement Medal, Meritorious Unit Commendation with bronze star, National Defense Service Medal with bronze star, and the Sea Service Deployment Ribbon with four bronze stars.

Lt. Gen. Mutter retired from the Marine Corps Jan. 1, 1999.

79.  Iwo Jima is the site of the now famous flag raising on Mount Suribachi by Marines from Company E, 2nd Battalion, 28th Marines, Feb. 23, 1945, during the battle for Iwo Jima in World War II.

The small island of Iwo Jima lies 660 miles south of Tokyo. One of its outstanding geographical features is Mount Suribachi, an extinct volcano that forms the narrow southern tip of the island and rises 550 feet to dominate the area. By February 1945, U.S. troops had recaptured most of the territory taken by the Japanese in 1941 and 1942; still uncaptured was Iwo Jima, which became a primary objective in American plans to bring the Pacific campaign to a successful conclusion.

Historians described U.S. forces' attack against the Japanese defense as "throwing human flesh against reinforced concrete." More than 20,000 Japanese troops were entrenched in tunnels and caves throughout the island.

Assault troops of the V Amphibious Corps, consisting of 4th and 5th Marine Division with 3d Marine Division in reserve, began landing on Iwo Jima  Feb. 19, 1945.

On the morning of Feb. 19, 1945, the V Amphibious Corps, consisting of 4th and 5th Marine Division with 3d Marine Division in reserve, invaded Iwo Jima after a somewhat ineffective bombardment lasting 72 hours.

The 28th Regiment, 5th Division, was ordered to capture Mount Suribachi. They reached the base of the mountain on the afternoon of February 21, and by nightfall the next day had almost completely surrounded it.

On the morning of February 23, 1st Lt. Harold G. Schrier led 40 men from Company E, 2d Battalion, 28th Marines, up Mount Suribachi to secure the crest and raise the small American flag his battalion commander had given him. The patrol reached the rim of the crater and engaged in a short firefight with Japanese defenders who emerged from several caves. By morning’s end, the small American flag was attached to an iron pipe and raised over the island.

That afternoon, another patrol was dispatched to raise another larger flag. The battle for Iwo Jima is encapsulated by this historic flag raising atop Suribachi, which was captured on film by Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal. His photo, seen around the world as a symbol of American values, would earn him many awards including the 1945 Pulitzer Prize. The flag-raisers as seen in the photo, are (from left to right) Pfc. Ira H. Hayes, Pfc. Franklin R. Sousley, Sgt. Michael Strank, Navy Petty Officer Second Class John Bradley, Pfc. Rene A. Gagnon, and Cpl. Harlon Block.

Strank, Block and Sousley died in combat shortly afterwards.

The 36-day assault on Iwo Jima resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead. Of the more than 20,000 Japanese defenders, only 1,083 survived.

One of the leaders of the Pacific campaign of World War II, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz said this of the battle,

"The battle of Iwo Island has been won. The United States Marines by their individual and collective courage have conquered a base which is as necessary to us in our continuing forward movement toward final victory as it was vital to the enemy in staving off ultimate defeat.

"By their victory, the 3rd, 4th and 5th Marine Divisions and other units of the Fifth Amphibious Corps have made an accounting to their country which only history will be able to value fully. Among the American who served on Iwo Island, uncommon valor was a common virtue."

The Marines' efforts on Iwo Jima provided a vital link in the U.S. chain of bomber bases. By war's end, 2,400 B-29 bombers carrying 27,000 crewmen made unscheduled landings on the island.

 Twenty-seven Medals of Honor were awarded to Marines and sailors, many posthumously, more than were awarded for any other single operation during the war.

Over the years, the flag raising has come to symbolize the spirit of the Corps to all Marines. On Nov. 10, 1954, a bronze monument of the flag raising, sculpted by Felix de Weldon was dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in defense of their country.

The memorial, on the edge of Arlington Cemetery near the Virginia's approaches to Memorial Bridge, was begun in September of 1954. The memorial site is a seven and one-half acre tract of land bordering the northern end of Arlington National Cemetery, and overlooking Washington, near the western end of Memorial Bridge. The entire cost of the statue and developing the memorial site was $850,000, donated by active-duty  Marines, former Marines, Marine Corps Reservists, friends of the Marine Corps, and members of the Naval Service. No public funds were used for the monument.

It was officially dedicated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower Nov. 10, 1954.

Then Vice President Richard M. Nixon said,

"This statue symbolizes the hopes and dreams of America, and the real purpose of our foreign policy. We realized that to retain freedom for ourselves, we must be concerned when people in other parts of the world may lose theirs. There is no greater challenge to statesmanship than to find a way that such sacrifices as this statue represents are not necessary in the future, and to build the kind of world in which people can be free, in which nations can be independent, and in which people can live together in peace and friendship."

The figures on the statue are 32 feet high; they are erecting a bronze flagpole 60 feet in length. They occupy the same positions as in Rosenthal's historic photograph. Hayes is the figure farthest from the flagstaff; Sousley to the right front of Hayes; Strank on Sousley's left; Bradley in front of Sousley; Gagnon in front of Strank; and Block closest to the bottom of the flagstaff. The figures are placed on a rock slope rising approximately 6 feet from a 10-foot base. Overall height of the statue is 78 feet. A cloth flag flies from the pole 24 hours a day in accordance with Presidential proclamation of June 12, 1961.

The M1 rifle carried by one of the figures is approximately 16 feet long, the carbines about 12 feet long. The canteen, if filled, would hold 32 quarts of water.

The figures of the statue are standing on rough Swedish granite. The concrete face of the statue is covered with blocks of polished Swedish black granite. Burnished into the granite, in gold lettering, are the names and dates of principal Marine Corps engagements since the Corps was founded in 1775. Also inscribed on the base is the tribute of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz to the fighting men on Iwo Jima: "Uncommon Valor was a Common Virtue." Opposite this, on the base is the inscription: "In honor and in memory of men of the United States Marine Corps who have given their lives to their country since November 10, 1775."

The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775.

81.  Gen. Graves Blanchard Erskine led the 3rd Marine Division on Iwo Jima during World War II.

Gen. Erskine was born in Columbia, La., on June 28, 1897. At the outbreak of World War I, he was a member of the Louisiana National Guard, and enrolled in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, May 21, 1917, while working his way through Louisiana State University. Upon graduation he reported for active duty in the Marine Corps as a second lieutenant on July 5, 1917.

In January 1918, he sailed for France, and as a platoon leader in the 6th Marine Regiment, participated in the Aisne-Marne Defensive (Chateau-Thierry), where he was wounded in action; Belleau Wood; Bouresches; Soissons; and the St. Mihiel Offensive, where he was again wounded in action. He was evacuated to the United States in October 1918 for hospitalization.

For bravery in action, he was awarded the Silver Star Medal, was cited by the Commander-in-Chief, AEF, and in General Orders of the War Department, and entitled to wear the French Fourragere as a member of the 6th Marine Regiment.

When World War II broke out, he was serving as Chief of Staff, Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet (later redesignated Amphibious Corps, Atlantic Fleet). In September 1942, he joined the Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, in San Diego, Calif., as Chief of Staff, and performed duty in Alaska in July and August 1943 during the planning and training phase of the assault on Attu and Kiska in the Aleutians. Immediately after this, he assumed duty as Chief of Staff of the 5th Amphibious Corps and embarked for the Pacific area. Overseas, he was promoted to brigadier general in November 1943 (with rank from September 1942), and was assigned additional duty as Deputy Commander, 5th Amphibious Corps. For exceptionally meritorious service during the assault and capture of Kwajalein, Saipan, and Tinian, he received two awards of the Legion of Merit, both with combat "V". He also performed additional duties during the Marianas campaign as Chief of Staff of East Marine Force, Pacific.

Following the Marianas operation, he was promoted to major general in September 1944, and the following month assumed command of the 3d Marine Division. He led the 3d Division in the battle for Iwo Jima where members of the division were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for heroism, and he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal.

He was authorized to retire from active service by a Special Act of Congress in June 1953 for the purpose of accepting a position as Assistant to the Secretary of Defense as Director of Special Operations of the Department of Defense, and served in this post for over eight years, until Oct. 31, 1961.

Upon his retirement from active duty in the Marine Corps, Gen. Erskine was advanced to four-star rank, July 1, 1953, by reason of having been specially commended for heroism in combat.

He died May 21, 1973, at Bethesda, Md.

Down

1.  Maj. Gen. Marion E. Carl was the Marine Corps' first air ace. He downed 10 enemy aircraft during the battle for Guadalcanal, was twice awarded the Navy Cross, and  finished World War II with 18 kills to his credit.

Born Nov. 1, 1915, in Hubbard, Ore., he graduated with a B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Oregon State College in 1938. A member of the ROTC unit while attending college, he resigned an Army Reserve commission to accept appointment as a Marine aviation cadet in August 1938, and was designated a Naval aviator with the rank of second lieutenant in the Marine Corps on Dec. 1, 1939.

As a section leader in a Marine fighter squadron during the Battle of Midway, he earned the Navy Cross while leading an attack against a vastly superior number of Japanese bomber and fighter planes. Later, in the fight for Guadalcanal, he earned a second Navy Cross for extraordinary heroism in aerial combat as a pilot in VMF-223, and became the first Marine Corps ace on Aug. 26, 1942.

In an aerial fight off the coast of Guadalcanal, he had to bail out of his shot-up Wildcat and was losing his battle to swim ashore against the tide when he was picked up by friendly natives in a canoe. After 5 days with the natives, he finally made his way back to his base.

His second tour of overseas duty, which took him through the Hawaiian Islands to New Hebrides, Vella Lavella in the Solomons, Guadalcanal, and Emirau, began in July 1943. In November 1944 he returned from the Pacific area, having earned a total of three Distinguished Flying Crosses and thirteen Air Medals.

As a test pilot assigned to the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, following the war, he made some of the first carrier landings and take-offs with an F-80 Shooting Star Jet; he became the first Marine helicopter pilot; and earned a fourth Distinguished Flying Cross setting a world's speed record in the Douglas Skystreak in 1947. He later commanded the Marine Corps' first jet fighter outfit, VMF-122, at Cherry Point, North Carolina, and formed the first jet aerobatic team.

From 1949-52, he commanded the Carrier Section of Flight Test at Patuxent River, and became the first Marine aviator to receive the Octave Chanute Award for "notable contribution to the aeronautical sciences." In 1953, while testing a new Navy high altitude pressure suit, he set an unofficial world's altitude record in the Navy's rocket-powered Douglas Skyrocket aircraft, earning a fifth Distinguished Flying Cross.

He was placed on the retired list on June 1, 1973, completing over 35 years of active service.

A complete list of the general's medals and decorations include: the Navy Cross with gold star in lieu of a second Navy Cross; the Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and gold stars in lieu of second through fourth awards; the Distinguished Flying Cross with four gold stars in lieu of second through fourth awards; the Air Medal with two silver stars and three gold stars in lieu of second through fourteenth awards; the Presidential Unit Citation with one bronze star; the American Defense Service Medal with Base Clasp; the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze stars; the American Campaign Medal; the World War II Victory Medal; the National Defense Service Medal with one bronze star; the Vietnam Service Medal; and the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.

He was killed June 28, 1998, during a robbery at his home in Roseburg, Ore.

4.  Col. Archibald Henderson, nicknamed the Grand Old Man, served 53 years of active service in the Marine Corps, 39 of those years as the Commandant of the Corps.

Archibald Henderson was born in Colchester, Virginia, on 21 January 1783. He was appointed a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 4 June 1806. During the War of 1812, as a captain, he served as commander of the Marine guard on board the frigate Constitution and for his gallant service with that famed vessel received the brevet rank of major.

In 1820 at the age of 37, he was appointed the fifth Commandant of the Marine Corps, a responsibility he held until his death almost 39 years later.

He began his tenure as Commandant as a lieutenant colonel. By authority of the Act of June 30, 1834 (4 Stat. 32) the rank of Commandant was raised to colonel. On March 4, 1843, Henderson was commissioned brigadier general by brevet for his services during the Florida Indian Wars. Subsequently, he was commonly referred to as Brevet Brigadier General Henderson. This was a personal rank in the nature of a decoration for gallantry. It had nothing to do with the office of the. In official correspondence, Henderson usually signed himself "Col. Commdt."

As Commandant, Henderson saw the Corps through a host of small campaigns and sea borne operations and personally led a Marine regiment in the early campaigns of the Seminole War.

He commanded the Corps during the Mexican War, and by the time of his death on the eve of the Civil War, had insured the continued role of his beloved Marine Corps as a strong-armed force in the American military structure.

Henderson passed away quietly during a nap on the afternoon of 6 January 1859. His remains were interred in the Congressional Cemetery in southeast Washington.

24.  Maj. Gen. Logan Feland commanded troops during the battle of Belleau Wood in World War I. During this period, German troops began calling the Marines of the 4th Marine Brigade by a new name – tefflehunden – or devil dog, for their ferociousness in battle.

Maj. Gen. Feland was born in Hopkinsville, Ky., Aug. 11, 1869. During the War with Spain he was captain of Company F, 3rd Kentucky Infantry. By virtue of his previous military experience he was appointed directly to the rank of first lieutenant in the Marine Corps on July 1, 1899.

Maj. Gen. Feland was attached to the 5th Regiment for service in France in World War I and was among the first contingent of American forces, which went overseas with Gen. Pershing in May 1917. On his arrival in France, Feland was made executive officer of the 5th Regiment. When the unit, as part of the 4th Marine Brigade, was thrown into the breach to stem the German advance at Chateau Thierry in May 1918, Feland was ever in the thick of the fighting.

At Belleau Woods in June 1918 when the halt in the German advance was turned into a retreat, Feland was given command of all troops in the Wood. His conspicuous valor on this occasion won him the Distinguished Service Cross. After his promotion to colonel, Feland became commanding officer of the 5th Regiment and as such led it in the Battles of Soissons, Blanc Mont Ridge and in the Argonne. For his outstanding exploits in the War, Feland was awarded, in addition to the Distinguished Service Cross mentioned above, the Distinguished Service Medals of both the Army and the Navy, Officer's rank in the Legion of Honor, the Croix de Guerre with bronze star, gold star, and four palms, and was cited in dispatches six times.

He retired Sept. 1, 1933 and died at Columbus, Ohio, July 17, 1936. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

26.  Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was the site of the Dec. 7, 1941, surprise attack by Japan, which compelled the United States to declare war on Japan and enter World War II.

Pearl Harbor, on the island of O'ahu, Hawaii, was then a territory of the United States.

On that Sunday morning, the surprise was complete. Approximately 100 ships of the U.S. Navy were present, consisting of battleships, destroyers, cruisers and various support ships. The attacking planes came in two waves. The first attack wave targets airfields and battleships. The second wave targets other ships and shipyard facilities. The air raid lasts until 9:45 a.m. The first hit its target at 7:53, the second at 8:55. By 9:55 it was all over. The surprise attack had been conceived by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. The striking force of 353 Japanese aircraft was led by Commander Mitsuo Fuchida. There had been no formal declaration of war. By 1:00 p.m. the carriers that launched the planes from 274 miles off the coast of Oahu were heading back to Japan.

Simultaneously, nearby Hickam Field was also the victim of the surprise attack by the Japanese.

Behind them they left chaos. Eight battleships are damaged, with five sunk. Three light cruisers, three destroyers and three smaller vessels are lost along with 188 aircraft. Escaping damage from the attack are the prime targets, the three U.S. Pacific Fleet aircraft carriers, Lexington, Enterprise and Saratoga, which were not in the port. Also escaping damage are the base fuel tanks.

The casualty list includes 2,335 servicemen and 68 civilians killed, with 1,178 wounded. Included are 1,104 men aboard the Battleship USS Arizona killed after a 1,760-pound air bomb penetrated into the forward magazine causing catastrophic explosions.

All of the ships, with the exception of the USS Arizona, Utah and Oklahoma were salvaged and later saw action in World War II.

The Japanese lost 27 planes and five midget submarines which attempted to penetrate the inner harbor and launch torpedoes.

News of the attack is broadcast to the American public via radio bulletins, with many popular Sunday afternoon entertainment programs being interrupted. The news sends a shockwave across the nation and results in a tremendous influx of young volunteers into the U.S. armed forces. In one stroke the Japanese action silenced the debate that had divided Americans ever since the German defeat of France left England alone in the fight against the Nazi terror. The attack united the nation behind the President and effectively ended isolationist sentiment in the country.

Dec. 8, 1941, the President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the declaration of war granted by Congress calling December 7, "a date which will live in infamy..."

One day later both Germany and Italy, as partners of Japan in the Tripartite Pact, declared war on the United States.

27.  Lt. Gen. Michael W. Hagee assumed duties as the 33rd Commandant of the Marine Corps Jan. 13, 2003.


Raised in Fredericksburg, Texas, Lt. Gen. Hagee graduated with distinction from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1968 with a B.S. degree in Engineering. He also holds a M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School and a M.A. degree in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College. He is a graduate of the Command and Staff College and the U.S. Naval War College.

His command assignments include: a platoon, two rifle companies and a headquarters and service company during tours on Okinawa and in Vietnam; Commanding Officer, Waikele-West Loch Guard Company (1974-1976); Commanding Officer, Pearl Harbor Guard Company (1976-1977); Commanding Officer, 1st Battalion, 8th Marines (1988-1990); Commanding Officer, 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) (1992-1993); Commanding General, 1st Marine Division; and Commanding General, I Marine Expeditionary Force.

His staff assignments include: Communications-Electronics Officer, 1st Marine Air Command and Control Squadron (1971); Assistant Director, Telecommunications School (1972-1974); Training Officer, 3d Marine Division (1977-1978); Electrical Engineering Instructor, U.S. Naval Academy (1978-1981); Head, Officer Plans Section, Headquarters Marine Corps (1982-1986); Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, 2d Marine Division (1987-1988); Executive Officer, 8th Marines (1988); Director Humanities and Social Science Division/Marine Corps Representative, U.S. Naval Academy (1990-1992); Liaison Officer to the U.S. Special Envoy to Somalia (1992-1993); Executive Assistant to the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps (1993-1994); Director, Character Development Division, United States Naval Academy (1994-1995); Senior Military Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, Washington, D.C.; Executive Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence (1995-1996); Deputy Director of Operations, Headquarters, U.S. European Command (1996-1998); and Director Strategic Plans and Policy, U.S. Pacific Command (1999-2000).

His personal decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal with palm, Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit with two Gold Stars, Bronze Star with Combat "V", Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal with one Gold Star, Navy Achievement Medal with one Gold Star, the Combat Action Ribbon, and the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal.

31.  Brig. Gen. Jacob Zeilin approved the design of the Marine Corps’ "eagle, globe and anchor'' emblem in 1868 while serving as Commandant of the Marine Corps.

He was born in Philadelphia July 16, 1806. He was commissioned in the Marine Corps in 1831. As commanding officer of the Marine detachment serving in the frigate Congress, he played a prominent role in landing operations during the conquest of California.

As a brevet major and senior Marine officer in the East India Squadron, he accompanied Commodore Matthew C. Perry in the latter's celebrated visits to Japan, 1853-1854.

He was wounded at the First Battle of Bull Run, during the Civil War, where he commanded a company.

He was selected by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Wells, who July 9, 1864, wrote in his diary, "Concluded to retire the Marine officers who are past legal age, and to bring in Zeilin as Commandant of the Corps.'' President Lincoln approved his choice on July 10. When appointed commandant, he was serving as commander of the Marine Barracks at Portsmouth, N.H.

After the war, Col. Zeilin successfully defended the Marine Corps against its critics. In 1867, he was promoted to brigadier general.

Brig. Gen. Zeilin retired on Nov. 1, 1876, and died in Washington Nov. 18, 1880. He was buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia.

33.  Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift became the first Marine to serve in the rank of general when he was promoted April 4 1945, to the rank from March 21 of that year.

The Act of March 21, 1945 (59 Stat. 29), permitted the President to appoint the Commandant to the rank of general. The Act of March 21, 1945, was restricted in effect to "six months after the termination of the war in which the United States is now engaged." Hostilities had not yet been officially terminated when, by the Act of Aug. 7, 1947 (61 Stat. 880), the rank of Commandant was permanently fixed as general.

Gen. Vandegrift was born at Charlottesville, Va., on March 13, 1887, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps after graduating from the University of Virginia in 1909. His early tours of duty took him to Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and China. In 1937, he was assigned as military secretary to Maj. Gen. Commandant Thomas Holcomb and in 1940, became Assistant to the Commandant.

In 1942, he was given command of the newly organized 1st Marine Division, which he led through the Guadalcanal campaign, Aug. 7 to Dec. 9, 1942, the first Allied offensive against the Japanese. For this outstanding service, he received both the Navy Cross and the Medal of Honor.

In July 1943, Gen. Vandegrift was assigned as commanding general of the I Marine Amphibious Corps and promoted to lieutenant general. He led the amphibious corps in the initial stages of the Bougainville operation, relinquishing command Nov. 9, 1943, and returning to Headquarters Marine Corps. Jan. 1, 1944, he became Commandant.

As Commandant, Gen. Vandegrift continued the task of wartime expansion of the Corps begun in 1941, to a peak strength of 484,631 Marines. After the end of the war, as the Marine Corps shrank to less than 15 percent of its wartime strength, Gen. Vandegrift led a successful effort to establish the Corps on a firm basis within the postwar national defense structure.

Gen. Vandegrift left active service Dec. 31, 1947, and was placed on the retired list April 1, 1949. He died at Bethesda, Md., May 8, 1973, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

39.  Maj. Gen. Smedley Darlington Butler, one of the most colorful officers in the Marine Corps' long history, is one of the two Marines who received two Medals of Honor for separate acts of outstanding heroism.

Maj. Gen. Butler, later known to thousands of Marines as "Ol' Gimlet Eye," was born July 30, 1881. He was still in his teens when May 20, 1898, he was appointed a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps for the war with Spain. Following a brief period of instruction at Washington, he served with the Marine Battalion, North Atlantic Squadron, until Feb. 11, 1899, when he was ordered to his home and honorably discharged Feb. 16, 1899. He was commissioned a first lieutenant in the Marine Corps April 8, 1899

His first Medal of Honor was presented following action at Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21 and 22, 1914, where he commanded the Marines who landed and occupied the city. Maj. Gen. Butler (then a major) "was eminent and conspicuous in command of his Battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city."

The following year, he was awarded the second Medal of Honor for bravery and forceful leadership as commanding officer of detachments of Marines and seamen of the USS Connecticut in repulsing Caco resistance on Fort Riviere, Haiti, Nov. 17, 1915.

During World War I, he commanded the 13th Regiment of Marines in France. For exceptionally meritorious service, he was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, and the French Order of the Black Star.

Oct. 1, 1931, he was retired upon his own application after completion of 33 years' service in the Marine Corps. He died at the Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, June 21, 1940, following a four-week illness.

The USS Butler, a destroyer, later converted to a high-speed minesweeper, was named for Maj. Gen. Butler in 1942. This vessel participated in the European and Pacific theaters of operations during the second World War.

41.  Maj. Gen. Charles F. Bolden, Jr. is a veteran of four Space Shuttle flights.

Born in Columbia, S.C., Maj. Gen. Bolden received a Bachelor of Science degree from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1968 and later earned a Master of Science degree in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1977.

Accepting a commission as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps following graduation from the Naval Academy, he underwent flight training at Pensacola, Fla., Meridian, Miss., and Kingsville, Texas, before being designated a naval aviator in May 1970. Between June 1972 and June 1973 he flew more than 100 combat missions into North and South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia in the A-6A Intruder while assigned to VMA (AW)-533 at Nam Phong, Thailand.
Throughout his career, he logged more than 6,000 hours of flying time in more than 30 models of fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft.

Maj. Gen. Bolden was selected as an astronaut candidate for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1980 and qualified as a space shuttle pilot astronaut in 1981, and subsequently flew four missions in space.

During his first mission on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in 1986, he participated in the successful deployment of the SATCOM KU satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing.

As pilot of the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1990, Major General Bolden and crew successfully deployed the Hubble Space Telescope while orbiting the earth from a record setting altitude of 400 miles. Additionally, they also conducted extensive scientific experimentation and employed a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in-cabin and cargo bay cameras for Earth observations.

On his third mission in 1992, he commanded the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the first Space Laboratory (SPACELAB) mission dedicated to NASA's "Mission to Planet Earth." During this nine-day mission, the crew operated the ATLAS-1 (Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science), a system composed of twelve experiments, which succeeded in making a vast amount of detailed measurements of the Earth's atmospheric chemical and physical properties. Immediately following this mission, Major General Bolden was appointed Assistant Deputy Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

He held this Washington, D.C. post until assigned as commander of STS-60, the 1994 flight of a six-member crew on the Space Shuttle Discovery. This landmark eight-day mission was the first joint U.S./Russian Space Shuttle mission, involving the participation of a Russian Cosmonaut as a mission specialist. The crew conducted a series of joint U.S./Russian science activities and carried the Space Habitation Module-2 and the Wake Shield Facility-01 into space. Upon completion of this fourth mission, Maj. Gen. Bolden left the space program having logged more than 680 hours in space.

Maj. Gen. Bolden has been awarded a number of military and NASA decorations and has received Honorary Doctorates from several distinguished universities. He retired from active service in 2002.

45.  Maj. Gen. Joseph Henry Pendleton had long advocated the establishment of a West Coast training base. In 1942, his idea became a reality. After five months of furious building activity, the 9th Marine Regiment marched from Camp Elliot in San Diego to Camp Pendleton, Calif., to be the first troops to occupy the new base. Sept. 25, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt official dedicated the new base.

Born in Rochester, Pa., June 2, 1860, "Uncle Joe" Pendleton, as he would later be known, graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps July 1, 1884.

Maj. Gen. Pendleton’s service included duty in the jungles of Nicaragua, Santa Domingo, Guam, and the Philippines, in addition to several stateside and shipboard tours. In 1914, the 4th Regiment was reactivated and he was ordered to organize and command this expeditionary force. He and his regiment served on board the USS South Dakota and Jupiter, when it withdrew to land at Camp Howard, North Island, San Diego July 10, 1914.

With the arrival of Maj. Gen. Pendleton’s regiment in San Diego, his love affair with the area began. He immediately recognized the value of San Diego with its good weather and harbor as an ideal choice for the Marine Corps’ Advance Base Force to be stationed on the West Coast.

He openly advocated a major Marine Corps installation in San Diego from his first stay on North Island until his retirement 10 years later. Between July 1914 and June 1916, Maj. Gen. Pendleton and his regiment improved facilities at North Island while the Marines made a favorable impression on the San Diego community. Meanwhile, visits of high-ranking dignitaries to various expositions during this period helped to win government support for a large Marine base at San Diego.

On June 2, 1924 General Pendleton was retired, having attained the age of 64 years and 40 years of Marine Corps service. The general bought a house in Coronado near the harbor and became active in the civic affairs of the city. He served as mayor of Coronado from 1928-1930.  He died Feb. 4, 1942, shortly before the base named for him was officially dedicated.

47.  Maj. Gen. David M. Mize is currently serving as the commanding general, Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejuene, N.C.

He attended the U.S. Naval Academy, earning majors in both Foreign Affairs and General Engineering. After graduating from The Basic School in January 1970, he reported to 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines near Da Nang, South Vietnam. During his one-year combat tour with the battalion, he served as a rifle platoon commander, S-3A, S-3, and rifle company commander.
 
His personal decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star, Navy Commendation Medal with Gold Star, and the Combat Action Ribbon.

56.  Gen. James L. Jones recently relinquished duties as the 32nd Commandant of the Marine Corps.

He spent his formative years in France, returning to the United States to attend the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, from which he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1966. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps in January 1967. Upon completion of The Basic School, Quantico, Va., in October 1967, he was ordered to the Republic of Vietnam, where he served as a platoon and company commander with Company G, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Marines.


April 21, 1999, he was nominated for appointment to the grade of general and assignment as the 32d Commandant of the Marine Corps. He was promoted to General on June 30, 1999, and assumed the duties as Commandant July 1, 1999.

He relinquished his post as Commandant to Lt. Gen. Hagee Jan. 13, 2003. He goes on to duty in Europe. Gen. Jones will become the first Marine ever to take command as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe.

Gen. Jones' personal decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star Medal, Legion of Merit with four gold stars, Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V", and the Combat Action Ribbon.

                       

58.  Maj. Gen. Charles Heywood was the first Marine to serve in the rank major general.

He was born in Waterville, Maine, Oct. 3, 1839. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps in 1858. During the Civil War he distinguished himself at the capture of Forts Clark and Hatteras, and at sea with Admiral Farragut.

In 1885, he commanded the force of 250 Marines from the Marine Barracks, Brooklyn Navy Yard that crossed the Isthmus of Panama to free Panama City from rebel forces.

Six years later, in 1891, he became Colonel Commandant. With modern ideas of personnel management, he instituted the fitness reports and promotion examination systems, and established the School of Application at Marine Barracks, Washington, for newly commissioned officers. It was the equivalent of today's Basic School at Quantico. During the Spanish-American War, Heywood saw the Corps expand some 50 percent and was himself promoted to brigadier general.

In 1902, Heywood was promoted to major general, the first Marine to hold the rank, and retired the following year with the Corps at its highest strength up to that point, 7,800 officers and men.

Maj. Gen. Heywood died in Washington, Feb. 26, 1915, and was interred in Arlington National Cemetery.

59.  Gen. Alfred M. Gray, the 29th Commandant of the Marine Corps, insisted, “Every Marine is a rifleman first.”

He born in Point Pleasant Beach, N.J., June 22, 1928, and enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1950. He served in the Korean War, attaining the rank of sergeant before being commissioned a second lieutenant in April 1952.

As a major, General Gray joined the 12th Marines, 3d Marine Division, in Vietnam in October 1965. He took command of the Composite Artillery Battalion and U.S. Free World Forces located at Gio Linh and then until February 1968 commanded 1st Radio Battalion elements throughout the I Corps area. After a brief tour in the United States, he returned to Vietnam from June to September 1969 in conjunction with surveillance and reconnaissance matters.

Gen. Gray was promoted to general and became Commandant of the Marine Corps on July 1, 1987. He retired on June 30, 1991, and resides in the Northern Virginia area.

61.  Gen. Earl Edward Anderson, the first active duty Marine Naval Aviator to be promoted to a four-star rank, became Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps on April 1, 1972.

He was born June 24, 1919, in Morgantown, W.Va., and graduated from Morgantown High School. He then entered West Virginia University, and graduated in 1940, after earning a Bachelor of Science degree and academic and military honors. He also holds a Master of Arts degree from that institution. In June, 1940, he was commissioned a Marine second lieutenant and reported to Philadelphia.

With the outbreak of World War II, Anderson and the USS Yorktown were transferred to the Pacific Area where they participated in the Marshall-Gilbert Campaign, the Salamaua-Lae Raid, and the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway. He was serving aboard the USS Yorktown when she was sunk in the Battle of Midway.

In Korea, the general was commanding officer for Marine Observation Squadron Six, and later became the Assistant Chief of Staff G-1, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing.

In December 1967, he returned to the Far East where he assumed duty as the Chief of Staff, III Marine Amphibious Force, Republic of Vietnam. He held that assignment until January 1969, and for his service he was awarded a Distinguished Service Medal, a National Order of Vietnam (5th Class), a Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm and a Korean Chungmu Medal.

In addition to his Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts degrees, General Anderson was also the recipient of a Juris Doctor degree in law with highest honors from George Washington University. He served as editor-in-chief of the George Washington University Law Review and was elected to the Order of the Coif.

A complete list of his medals and decorations include: a Distinguished Service Medal; a Legion of Merit Medal with Combat "V" and two Gold Stars in lieu of second and third awards; a Distinguished Flying Cross with one Gold Star in lieu of a second award; a Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V"; an Air Medal with one Silver Star and two Gold Stars in lieu of a second through eighth award; a Purple Heart Medal; a Presidential Unit Citation with one Bronze Star; a Navy Unit Commendation with one Bronze Star; an American Defense Service Medal with Fleet Clasp; An American Campaign Medal; and Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with four Bronze Stars; a World War II Victory Medal; a National Defense Service Medal with one Bronze Star; a Korean Service Medal with one Bronze Star; A Vietnam Service Medal with one Silver and one Bronze Star; a National Order of Vietnam Medal (5th Class); a Vietnamese Distinguished Service Order Medal (1st Class); A Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm; a Korean Chungmu Medal; a United Nations Service Medal; a Philippine Liberation Ribbon; a Korean Presidential Unit Citation; a Vietnamese Meritorious Unit Citation and a Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal with Device.

He was promoted to general March 31, 1972 and retired from the Marine Corps in July 1975.

64.  Lt. Gen. John A. Lejeune, often referred to as "the greatest of all Leathernecks," during his more than 40 years service with the Marine Corps, led the famed 2nd Division (Army) in World War I, and was Major General Commandant of the Marine Corps from June 1920 to March 1929. A birthday message he drafted during his tenure as the 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps is read every year at celebrations of the Marine Corps’ birth.

He was born at Pointe Coupee, La., Jan. 10, 1867. He was educated at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, from which he was graduated with a B.A. degree. Subsequently he secured an appointment as a midshipman at the U.S. Naval Academy, from which he was graduated in 1888. At the expiration of a two-year cruise as a cadet midshipman he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps on July 1, 1890, and during the succeeding years saw action in the Spanish-American War aboard the USS Cincinnati.

He was  appointed Major General Commandant of the Marine Corps on June 30, 1920.

Upon the expiration of his second term as Commandant, Lt. Gen. Lejeune indicated his desire not to retire from the Marine Corps, but was relieved as Commandant in March 1929. The following November, on the 10th day of the month, he retired in order to accept the position of superintendent of the Virginia Military Institute, serving there until poor health necessitated his resignation in October 1937. In February 1942 he was advanced to the rank of lieutenant general on the Marine Corps retired list.

Lt. Gen. Lejeune succumbed on Nov. 20, 1942, at the Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, Md., and was interred in the Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors.

Today, Camp Lejeune, N.C. bears not only the name of a Marine officer but one of the most distinguished servicemembers of World War I.

69.  Gen. Raymond G. Davis earned the Medal of Honor in Korea in 1950. His last assignment was as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps from March 12,1971, until March 31, 1972.

Raymond Gilbert Davis was born Jan. 13, 1915, in Fitzgerald, Ga., and graduated in 1933 from Atlanta Technical High School, Atlanta. He then entered the Georgia School of Technology, graduating in 1938 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemical Engineering. While in college he was a member of the Reserve Officers Training Corps unit. After graduation, he resigned his commission in the U. S. Army Infantry Reserve to accept appointment as a Marine second lieutenant June 27, 1938.

As a lieutenant colonel in Korea, Gen. Davis earned the nation's highest decoration for heroism during the 1st Marine Division's historic fight to break out of the Chosin Reservoir area. There, against overwhelming odds, he led his battalion in a terrific four-day battle, which saved a rifle company from annihilation and opened a mountain pass for the escape of two trapped Marine regiments. The award was presented him by President Truman in a White House ceremony Nov. 24, 1952.

During World War II, he participated in the Guadalcanal-Tulagi landings, the capture and defense of Guadalcanal, the Eastern New Guinea and Cape Gloucester campaigns, and the Peleliu operation. Beginning in June 1942, he embarked with his unit for the Pacific area, landing at Guadalcanal two months later. After that campaign, he was appointed Executive Officer of the 1st Special Weapons Battalion, 1st Marine Division. In October 1943, Major Davis took over command of the battalion and served in that capacity at New Guinea and Cape Gloucester. In April 1944, while on Cape Gloucester, he was named Commanding Officer, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division.

His action while commanding the 1st Battalion at Peleliu in September 1944 earned him the Navy Cross and the Purple Heart. Although wounded during the first hour of the Peleliu landing, he refused evacuation to remain with his men; and, on one occasion, when heavy Marine casualties and the enemy's point-blank cannon fire had enabled the Japanese to break through, he personally rallied and led his men in fighting to re-establish defense positions.

Besides receiving the Medal of Honor for action during the Korean War, he twice earned the Silver Star Medal by exposing himself to heavy enemy fire while leading and encouraging his men in the face of strong enemy opposition. He also received the Legion of Merit with Combat “V” for exceptionally meritorious conduct and professional skill in welding the 1st Battalion into a highly- effective combat team. Later, as executive officer of the 7th Marines, from December 1950 to June 1951, he earned the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V” for his part in rebuilding the regiment after the Chosin Reservoir campaign. He returned from Korea in June 1951.

Ordered to the Republic of Vietnam, Gen. Davis served briefly as Deputy Commanding General, Provisional Corps, then became Commanding General, 3d Marine Division. For his service in the latter capacity from May 22, 1968 until April 14, 1969, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, and three personal decorations by the Vietnamese Government.

Feb. 23, 1971, President Nixon nominated Gen. Davis for appointment to the grade of general and assignment to the position of Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. His nomination was confirmed by the Senate and he received his fourth star on assuming those duties, March 12, 1971.

He retired from active duty March 31, 1972, after more than 33 years on active duty

A complete list of his medals and decorations include the Medal of Honor; the Navy Cross; the Distinguished Service Medal with Gold Star in lieu of a second award; the Silver Star Medal with Gold Star in lieu of a second award; the Legion of Merit with Combat “V" and Gold Star in lieu of a second award; the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V"; the Purple Heart; the Presidential Unit Citation with four bronze stars indicative of second through fifth awards; the Navy Unit Commendation; the American Defense Service Medal with Fleet clasp; the American Campaign Medal; the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with one silver star in lieu of five bronze stars; the World War II Victory Medal; the National Defense Service Medal with one bronze star; the Korean Service Medal with four bronze stars; the Vietnam Service Medal with three bronze stars; the National Order of Vietnam, 4th Class; the National Order of Vietnam, 4th Class; the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with three Palms; two Korean Presidential Unit Citations; the United Nations Service Medal; and the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal.

Information for the 4th quarter puzzle ‘General Who?’ was gathered by visiting the Marine Corps History and Museums Website at http://hqinet001.hqmc.usmc.mil/HD/.

Additional Information about the Battle on Iwo Jima during World War II was gathered by visiting http://www.iwojima.com/ and http://www.nps.gov/gwmp/usmc.htm.

Information about the Pearl Harbor attack Dec. 7, 1941 was gathered by visiting http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/pearl.htm, http://plasma.nationalgeographic.com/pearlharbor/ and http://my.execpc.com/~dschaaf/mainmenu.html.