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Foreword
Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt

Acknowledgments


Introduction
Peter H. Raven

Part 1--Factors Affecting Biological Resources

Natural Processes
Steward T. A. Pickett

The Impact of Hurricane Andrew on Louisiana's Coastal Landscape
Glenn Guntenspergen

Ecosystem Recovery Following a Catastrophic Disturbance: Lessons Learned from Mount St. Helens
Charles M. Crisafulli and Charles P. Hawkins

Land Use
Monica G. Turner, Stephen R. Carpenter, Eric J. Gustafson, Robert J. Naiman, and Scott M. Pearson

Effects of Fire Suppression on Ecosystems and Diversity
John D. Stuart

Water Use
Raymond Herrmann, Robert Stottlemyer, and Laura Scherbarth

Impounded River Systems
Clair Stalnaker and Dale Crawford (artist)

Climate Change
Stephen H. Schneider and Terry L. Root

Understanding Climate Change Effects on Glacier National Park's Natural Resources
Daniel B. Fagre

Nonindigenous Species
James D. Williams and Gary K. Meffe

American Chestnut Blight
James D. Williams and Gary K. Meffe

Eastern and Western Mosquitofishes
James D. Williams and Gary K. Meffe

Environmental Contaminants
Christopher J. Schmitt

A History of Aquatic Toxicology
Mary G. Henry

Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in the Environment
Michael J. Mac

Harvest
Thomas D. Nudds

Part 2--Regional Trends of Biological Resources


Northeast
William F. Porter andJennifer A. Hill

Birds and Landscape Changes in Northeastern Forests
Sam Droege

Northeastern Spruce-Fir Forests
Robert S. Seymour

American Woodcock
Daniel McAuley and David A. Clugston

American Black Duck
Jerry R. Longcore and David A. Clugston

Trends in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Wetlands
Ralph W. Tiner

Status of Living Resources in Chesapeake Bay
Tawna Mertz

Coastal Maine: Island Habitats and Fauna
Catherine M. Johnson and William B. Krohn

Great Lakes
Thomas A. Edsall

Habitat Change in a Perched Dune System Along Lake Superior
Walter L. Loope and A. Kathryn McEachern

Sea Lamprey in the Great Lakes
Carlos Fetterolf

Southeast
Peter S. White, Stephanie P. Wilds, Gwendolyn A. Thunhorst, and contributing authors (John M. Alderman, Matthew Barnett-Lawrence, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Thomas C. Gibson, David S. Lee, Michael R. Pelton, David Penrose, and James D. Williams)

Texas Natural History: A Century of Change
David J. Schmidly

Environmental Change in South Texas
Duane C. Chapman, Diana M. Papoulias, and Chris P. Onuf

Caribbean Islands
James W. Wiley and Francisco J. Vilella

Coral Reefs of the U.S. Virgin Islands
Caroline S. Rogers

Reef Fishes of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands
Virginia Haney Garrison

Sea Turtles of the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico
Zandy-Marie Hillis-Starr, Ralf Boulon, and Michael Evans

Mississippi River
James G. Wiener, Calvin R. Fremling, Carl E. Korschgen, Kevin P. Kenow, Eileen M. Kirsch, Sara J. Rogers, Yao Yin, and Jennifer S. Sauer

Coastal Louisiana
James G. Gosselink, James M. Coleman, and Robert E. Stewart, Jr.

Grasslands
Fred B. Samson, Fritz L. Knopf, and Wayne R. Ostlie

Tall-Grass Prairie Butterflies and Birds
Ann B. Swengel and Scott R. Swengel

Amphibians of the Northern Grasslands
Diane L. Larson, Ned Euliss, Michael J. Lannoo, and David M. Mushet

Wetland Birds in the Northern Great Plains
Lawrence D. Igl and Douglas H. Johnson

Waterfowl in the Prairie Pothole Region
Jane E. Austin

Duck Plague: Emergence of a New Cause of Waterfowl Mortality
Milton Friend

Population Trends for Prairie Pothole Carnivores
Raymond J. Greenwood and Marsha A. Sovada

Rocky Mountains
Thomas J. Stohlgren

Whitebark Pine
Katherine C. Kendall

Limber Pine
Katherine C. Kendall

Amphibians of Glacier National Park
Leo Marnell

Great Basin-Mojave Desert Region
Peter F. Brussard, David A. Charlet, and David S. Dobkin, and contributing authors (Lianne C. Ball, Kathleen A. Bishop, Hugh B. Britten, Erica Fleishman, Scott A. Fleury, Tom Jenni, Tom B. Kennedy, Ron Marlow, Christine O. Mullen, Mary M. Peacock, Don Prusso, Michael Reed, Lynn Riley, Richard W. Rust, Janice L. Simpkin, Gary Vinyard, and Ulla G. Yandell)

Human-Induced Changes in the Mojave and Colorado Desert Ecosystems: Recovery and Restoration Potential
Jeff Lovich

Southwest
Michael A. Bogan, Craig D. Allen, Esteban H. Muldavin, Steven P. Platania, James N. Stuart, Greg H. Farley, Patricia Mehlhop, and Jayne Belnap

A Ponderosa Pine Natural Area Reveals Its Secrets
Craig D. Allen

Soils and Cryptobiotic Crusts in Arid Lands
Jayne Belnap

Changing Landscapes of the Middle Rio Grande
Michael A. Bogan

Rare Aquatic Snails
Patricia Mehlhop

Perils Facing the Gila Trout
Steven P. Platania

Arizona Leopard Frogs: Balanced on the Brink?
Michael J. Sredl

Elk Reintroductions
Craig D. Allen

Endemic Mammals of the Henry Mountains, Utah
Michael A. Bogan

Southwestern Bats
Michael A. Bogan

California
Stephen D. Veirs, Jr., Paul A. Opler, and contributing authors (David S. Gilmer, David M. Graber, Tim Graham, Laurie S. Huckaby, Mark R. Jennings, Kathryn McEachern, Peter B. Moyle, and Rosemary A. Stefani)

Fire and Fuel in a Sierra Nevada Ecosystem
Jan W. van Wagtendonk

Torrey Pine
Stephen D. Veirs, Jr.

Emerging Diseases in Southern Sea Otters
Nancy J. Thomas, Lynn H. Creekmore, Rebecca A. Cole, and Carol U. Meteyer

California Abalone
Gary E. Davis

Channel Islands and California Desert Snail Fauna
Steven M. Chambers

Western Snowy Plovers and California Least Terns
Abby Powell

Pacific Northwest
Jeff P. Smith, Michael W. Collopy, and contributing authors (R. Bruce Bury, Michael A. Castellano, Stephen P. Cross, David S. Dobkin, Joan Hagar, John D. Lattin, Judith Li, Karl J. Martin, William C. McComb, Jeffrey C. Miller, Randy Molina, J. Mark Perkins, David A. Pyke, Roger Rosentreter, Jane E. Smith, Edward G. Starkey, and Steven D. Tesch)

Complex Interactions of Introduced Trout and Native Biota in High-Elevation Lakes
William J. Liss and Gary L. Larson

Spotted Frogs in the Western Pacific Northwest
Kelly R. McAllister

Northern Spotted Owl
Eric D. Forsman

Wintering Canada Geese in the Willamette Valley
Charles J. Henny and Maura B. Naughton

Sage Grouse in Oregon
John A. Crawford

Translocated Sea Otter Populations off the Oregon and Washington Coasts
Ronald J. Jameson

Roosevelt Elk and Forest Structure in Olympic National Park
Douglas B. Houston, Edward S. Schreiner, and Andrea Woodward

Alaska
David R. Klein, David F. Murray, Robert H. Armstrong, and Betty A. Anderson

Pacific Halibut in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska
Philip N. Hooge and Spencer J. Taggart

Hawaii and the Pacific Islands
Lloyd L. Loope

The Effect of Introduced Euglandina Snails on Endemic Snails of Moorea, French Polynesia
Lloyd L. Loope

Marine Resources
Loh-Lee Low, Allen M. Shimada, Steven L. Swartz, and Michael P. Sissenwine

Northeast Region
John B. Pearce, Emory D. Anderson, Kenneth Sherman, James E. O'Reilly, Robert N. Reid, Frank W. Steimle, and James H. W. Hain


North Atlantic Right Whale
James H. W. Hain

Southeast Region
Thomas D. McIlwain


Linkages Between Coastal Wetlands and Fishery Resources
Thomas J. Minello and Roger J. Zimmerman

Bottlenose Dolphins
Robert A. Blaylock, Larry J. Hansen, and Keith D. Mullin

Alaska Region
Loh-Lee Low, Howard W. Braham, James C. Olsen, Patrick J. Gould, and Allen M. Shimada


The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
William P. Hines

Northern Sea Lion
Howard W. Braham

Pacific Coast Region
Bruce B. McCain, Alec D. MacCall, Robert L. Emmett, and Richard D. Brodeur


Effect of El Niño on the Southern California Bight
Howard W. Braham

Western Pacific Oceanic Region
Bruce C. Mundy and Alan R. Everson


Genetic Diversity of Central Pacific Marine Mammals
Bruce C. Mundy

Hawaiian Monk Seal
Bruce C. Mundy

National Status and Trends
Loh-Lee Low, Howard W. Braham, James H. W. Hain, Stephen C. Jameson, Steven H. Jury, Mark E. Monaco, Allen M. Shimada, David L. Stein, and Steven L. Swartz

National Issues and Threats
Loh-Lee Low, Bruce C. Mundy, Bruce B. McCain, Thomas D. McIlwain, Emory D. Anderson, and Kenneth Sherman


Common and Scientific Names Appendix


Glossary


Index