This web site was copied prior to January 20, 2005. It is now a Federal record managed by the National Archives and Records Administration. External links, forms, and search boxes may not function within this collection. Learn more.   [hide]
NSF Home IMAGE LIBRARY HOME Contact NSF Image Library How to Use the NSF Image Library
Image Search


Image: Microscopic photo of metal-oxidizing bacteria found in biofilm samples taken from a South African gold mine. Samples were taken as part of the University of Tennessee's (UT) Biogeochemical Educational Experiences - South Africa (BEE-SA)—a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. BEE-SA participants collected fissure water samples from South African gold mines as part of their research. South African mines, particularly the deep gold mines, have been selected for study because they provide relatively easy access to deep fissure waters and the rocks that host them. Since these mines are some of the deepest excavations in the world, they increase the possibility of uncontaminated studies of earlier evolution.  <I>[To see other images in this group, search for <B>Biogeochemical Educational Experiences in South Africa (Image )</B> and <B></B> using the library search engine.</I><BR>
<U><B>More about this Image</B></U><BR>
Supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) REU program and by UT, BEE-SA brings together U.S. and South African students and faculty mentors in South Africa to examine microbial life forms that exist in the deepest mines in the world. The international host institution is the University of Free State (UFS) in Bloemfontein, South Africa.<BR>
Students participating in the BEE-SA program work side by side with South African students under the joint supervision of U.S. and South African faculty, conducting interdisciplinary research on biogeochemical processes in South African gold mines. As part of the research program, students present research results during laboratory progress meetings; at a science symposium held at the conclusion of the REU activity; and in written manuscript format as a final report. During the REU tenure, students have the opportunity to explore scientific, educational and technical collaborations as well as career development. Topics of research include the characterization of microbial communities with molecular and biochemical techniques; utilization of geochemical and isotopic parameters to constrain nutrient cycling in groundwater; investigating extreme enzymes – proteomics; and examining functional genes.<BR>
BEE-SA is an outgrowth of NSF-funded research including workshops supported by the NSF-supported Life in Extreme Environments Program (LExEn), managed by Princeton University. The goal of the Princeton LExEn project is to study biochemical approaches for gold extraction at depths beyond the limit of human mining, utilizing mesophilic sulfide oxidizing and Fe (II) oxidizing bacteria prior to cyanidation.  Thumbnail


E-mail Address:

Where will the image be used:
NSF requests users to complete an electronic information form documenting the requestor's planned use of the image. This form provides us with valuable tracking information that will help to shape the contents of the image library in the future. We do not retain any personal information (name, email address other than domain name - “.edu,” “.org,” “.com,” “.gov,” etc.) in our files. If you would prefer not to provide your name and email address, type any letter in those boxes. For information about NSF’s Privacy Policy, please see

Image Library HomeNSF HomeOffice of Legislative and Public Affairs Home

The National Science Foundation
4201 Wilson Boulevard
Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA
Tel: 703-292-5111
FIRS: 800-877-8339 ~ TDD: 703-292-5090

Last Modified: Jan 31, 2001