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THE HEALTH OF MINORITY WOMEN

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Endnotes

  1. U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000. (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t11.html).

  2. U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000. (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t11.html).

  3. Women of Color Health Data Book, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, 2000, pp. 1-2 and U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000. (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t11.html).

  4. U.S. Census Bureau, Factfinder, Census Data Information. The Definition of Race. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/epss/glossary_r.html

  5. U.S. Census Bureau, Factfinder, Census Data Information. The Definition of Race and Ethnicity. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/en/epss/race_ethnic.html

  6. U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000. (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t11.html).

  7. U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000 (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t11.html) and Women of Color Health Data Book, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, 2000, p. 17.

  8. Women of Color Health Data Book, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, 2000, p. 12 and U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000.

  9. Women of Color Health Data Book, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, 2000, pp. 22-23 and U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000.

  10. Women of Color Health Data Book, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, 2000, pp. 7-8 and U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000. AND U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000. (http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t11.html).

  11. Women of Color Health Data Book, 2000, pp. 3-4.

  12. U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1, Male-Female ratio by race alone or in combination and Hispanic or Latino origin for the United States: 2000.

  13. Women of Color Health Data Book, 2000, p. 15.

  14. Ibid.

  15. Women of Color Health Data Book, 2000, p. 91.

  16. Women of Color Health Data Book, 2000, p. 83.

  17. Health, US, 2002, Preventative Health Care, Adult Vaccination, p. 34.

  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey. Percentage of adults aged 65 years and older who had ever received pneumococcal vaccine, by age group and sex: United States, 2000, p. 4, Figure 5.2. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/measure05.pdf)

  19. Ibid.

  20. Health, US, 2002, Preventative Health Care, Adult Vaccination, p. 34-35, 62, and MMWR, November 15, 2002/51(45); 1019-1024. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Levels Among Persons Aged > 65 Years - United States 2001. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5145a3.htm#tab1

  21. Health, US, 2002, Preventative Health Care, Adult Vaccination, p. 34.

  22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey. Percentage of adults aged 50 years and older who had received influenza vaccine during the past 12 months, by age, gender, and race/ethnicity: United States, 1997-2000, p. 2, Figure 4.1. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/measure04.pdf)

  23. Health, US, 2002, Preventative Health Care, Adult Vaccination, p. 62 and MMWR, November 15, 2002/51(45); 1019-1024. Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination Levels Among Persons Aged > 65 Years - United States 2001. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5145a3.htm#tab1

  24. Women of Color Health Data Book, 2000, p. 83.

  25. Ibid..

  26. Ibid..

  27. Women of Color Health Data Book, 2000, p. 84.

  28. Ibid..

  29. Ibid..

  30. Women of Color Health Data Book, 2000, p. 85.

  31. Ibid.

  32. Health, United States, 2002, Table 32, Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, according to sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2000, pp. 21-24.

  33. Health, United States, 2002, Tables 36-47, Death rates for all causes, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, pp. 28-62.

  34. Health, United States, 2002, Table 45, Death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries, according to sex, detailed race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, pp. 53-56.

  35. Health, United States, 1999, Health Status and Determinants, Mortality, p. 7.

  36. Health, United States, 1999, Health Status and Determinants, Mortality, p. 7.

  37. Health, United States, 2002, Table 46, Death rates for homicide, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, pp. 57-59.

  38. Health, United States, 2002, Table 46, Death Rates for homicide, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, pp. 57-59.

  39. National Center for Health Statistics, HHS News, HHS Study Finds Life Expectancy in the U.S. Rose to 77.2 Years in 2001. Released March 14, 2003. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr51/nvsr51_05.pdf).

  40. National Center for Health Statistics, HHS News, HHS Study Finds Life Expectancy in the U.S. Rose to 77.2 Years in 2001. Released March 14, 2003. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr51/nvsr51_05.pdf).

  41. Health, United States, 2002, Table 28, Life expectancy at birth, at 65 years of age, and at 75 years of age, according to race and sex: United States, selected years 1990-2000, p. 1.

  42. Bureau of the Census, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, Profiles of America's Elderly: Racial and Ethnic Diversity of America's Elderly Population. Current Population Reports, Series POP/93-1. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1993.

  43. Women of Color, Health Assessment of Women of Color, Life Expectancy, pp. 55-56.

  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chronic Disease Overview. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/)

  45. Ibid.

  46. Centers for Disease Control, Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General - 2001. Pattern of Tobacco Use Among Women and Girls - Fact Sheet. (http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_forwomen/factsheet_tobaccouse.htm)

  47. Centers for Disease Control, Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General - 2001. Pattern of Tobacco Use Among Women and Girls - At a Glance. (http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_forwomen/ataglance.htm)

  48. CDC's TIPS. Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nation's Leading Cause of Death, 1999. (www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/pdf/aag_osh2003.pdf)

  49. Centers for Disease Control, Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General - 2001. Pattern of Tobacco Use Among Women and Girls - At a Glace. (http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_forwomen/ataglance.htm)

  50. Women of Color, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 67.

  51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General - 2001. Pattern of Tobacco Use Among Women and Girls - Fact Sheet. (http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_forwomen/ataglance.htm)

  52. Women of Color, Tobacco Use Among Adolescent Females of Color, p. 69. Ibid.

  53. Health, 2002, United States, Table 63. Current cigarette smoking by adults according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, age, and education: United States, average annual 1990-92, 1993-95 and 1999-2000, p. 199-200.

  54. Women of Color, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 69.

  55. Health, 2002, United States, Table 63.

  56. Women of Color, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 67.

  57. Health, 2002, United States, Table 63.

  58. Women of Color, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 67.

  59. Ibid.

  60. Ibid..

  61. Ibid..

  62. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Statistics Related to Overweight and Obesity, NIH Publication No. 96-4158, July 1996, p. 2. (http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statobes.htm)

  63. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, p. 3. (http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statobes.htm)

  64. Ibid.

  65. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, p. 6. (http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statobes.htm)

  66. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, p. 37. (http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statobes.htm)

  67. Health, US, 2002, Table 70, Healthy weight, overweight, and obesity among person 20 years of age and over, according to sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1960-62, 1971-74, 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2000, p. 213.

  68. Ibid., p. 213.

  69. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Nutrition and Physical Activity, Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm)

  70. Women of Color, p. 107.

  71. Health, US, 2002, Table 70, p. 213.

  72. Women of Color, Behavior and Lifestyles, p. 61.

  73. Health, US, 2002, Table 70, p. 213.

  74. Women of Color, Behavior and Lifestyles, p. 61.

  75. Ibid., p. 46.

  76. NIH, NIDDK, Cirrhosis of the Liver. (http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/digest/pubs/cirrhosi/cirrhosi.htm)

  77. Women of Color, Alcohol Consumption among Women of Color, p. 70.

  78. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, About Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. (http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fas/default.htm)

  79. SAMHSA, Fact Sheet, 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. (http://oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/1997Main/Table%20of%20Contents.htm#TopOfPage)

  80. SAMHSA, Fact Sheet, 1999, p.2.

  81. SAMHSA, Fact Sheet, 1999, p.2.

  82. Women of Color, Health Assessment of Women of Color, Alcohol Consumption Among Adolescent Females of Color, p. 72.

  83. Ibid.

  84. Ibid., p. 70.

  85. Health, United States, 2002, Table 67, Alcohol consumption by persons 18 years of age and over, according to sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1997-2000, pp. 207-208.

  86. Ibid., p. 207.

  87. Women of Color, Alcohol-related Deaths, p. 73.

  88. Women of Color, Alcohol Consumption among Women of Color, p. 71

  89. Women of Color, Alcohol-related Deaths, p. 73.

  90. Indian Health Service, The HIS Primary Care Provider, Part 2 of March 1995, Volume 20, No. 3, Pages 37-56.

  91. Women of Color, Alcohol Consumption among Women of Color, p. 71.

  92. Women of Color, Alcohol-related Deaths, p. 73.

  93. Ibid., p. 73.

  94. Women of Color, Alcohol Consumption among Women of Color, p. 70.

  95. Ibid., p. 70.

  96. Ibid., p. 71.

  97. Ibid., p. 70.

  98. Ibid., pp. 70-71.

  99. Women of Color, Use of Marijuana and Other Substances by Women of Color, p. 74.

  100.  Ibid.

  101. Ibid.

  102. Women of Color, Cocaine and Crack Use by Women of Color, p. 75.

  103. Ibid.

  104. Women of Color, Use of Illicit Substances by Adolescent Females of Color, p. 76.

  105. Ibid., pp. 76-77.

  106. Ibid., p. 76.

  107. Ibid., p. 77.

  108. Ibid.

  109. Ibid., p. 79.

  110. Ibid.

  111. Ibid.

  112. Ibid.

  113. Ibid.

  114. Ibid.

  115. Ibid.

  116. Ibid.

  117. Ibid.

  118. Ibid.

  119. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, A Report from the Surgeon General: Physical Activity and Health, The Link Between Physical Activity and Morbidity and Mortality. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/mm.htm).

  120. CDC, The Link Between Physical Activity and Morbidity and Mortality. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/mm.htm).

  121. The Surgeon General's Call To Action To Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Overweight and Obesity Fact Sheet: Surgeon General's Healthy Weight Advice for Consumers, (http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/fact_advice.htm).

  122. Healthier US: The President's Health Fitness Initiative, Chapter 3, The President's Recommendations for Improving Physical Fitness: Be Physically Active Every Day, (http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/fitness/chapt3.html).

  123. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, A Report from the Surgeon General: Physical Activity and Health, Women. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/women.htm).

  124. Ibid.

  125. Ibid.

  126. Women of Color Health Data Book, Exercise, p. 64.

  127. Ibid.

  128. Ibid.

  129. Ibid.

  130. Ibid.

  131. Ibid, pp. 64-65.

  132. Ibid, P. 64-65.

  133. Health, US, 2002, Highlights, Morbidity, p. 4.

  134. Health, US, 2002, Table 58, Limitation of activity caused by chronic conditions, according to selected characteristics: United States, 1997-2000, pp. 189-191.

  135. Ibid.

  136. Ibid.

  137. Health, US, 2002, Table 59, Respondent-assessed health status, according to selected characteristics: United States, 1991-2000, pp. 192-193.

  138. Ibid.

  139. Health, US, 1999, Health Status, Morbidity, p. 8.

  140. Ibid.

  141. Ibid.

  142. Women of Color Health Data Book, Cardiovascular Disease, p. 99.

  143. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About Cardiovascular Disease. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/bb_heartdisease/index.htm).

  144. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Preventing Heart Disease and Stoke: Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_cvd.htm).

  145. Women of Color Health Data Book, Cardiovascular Disease, p. 99.

  146. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, About Cardiovascular Disease. (http://www.cdc.gov/health/cardiov.htm).

  147. Health, US, 2002, Table 37, Age-adjusted rates for diseases of the heart, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1974-2000, pp. 32-34.

  148. Ibid.

  149. Women of Color Health Data Book, Morbidity and Mortality, p. 97.

  150. Women of Color Health Data Book, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 67.

  151. Health, US, 2002,Table 70, Healthy weight, overweight, and obesity among persons 20 years of age and over, according to sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1960-62, 1971-74, 1976-80,1988-94, and 1999-2000, pp. 215-216.

  152. Health, US, 2002, Table 37, Age-adjusted rates for diseases of the heart, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1974-2000, pp. 32-34.

  153. Ibid., Notes, p. 34.

  154. Women of Color Health Data Book, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 67. Health, US, 2002, Table 37, Age-adjusted rates for diseases of the heart, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1974-2000, pp. 32-34.

  155. Women of Color Health Data Book, Factors Affecting the Health of Women of Color, p. 15.

  156. Women of Color Health Data Book, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 67. Health, US, 2002, Table 37, Age-adjusted rates for diseases of the heart, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1974-2000, pp. 32-34.

  157. Women of Color Health Data Book, Tobacco Use Among Women of Color, p. 67. Women of Color Health Data Book, Cardiovascular Disease, p. 99. Ibid., p. 99.

  158. American Stroke Association (A division of American Heart Association), Impact of Stroke. (http://www.strokeassociation.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=1033).

  159. Health, US, 2002, Table 38, Death rates for cerebrovascular diseases, according to race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, pp. 35-37.

  160. Women of Color Health Data Book, Cancers, p. 100.

  161. Ibid., p. 100.

  162. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cigarette Smoking Related Mortality. (http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/health_consequences/mortali.htm).

  163. Health, US, 2002, Table 40, Death rates for malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lung, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, pp. 151-153.

  164. Ibid.

  165. Ibid.

  166. Women of Color Health Data Book, Breast Cancer, pp. 103-104.

  167. Health, US, 2002, Table 42, Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast for females, according to race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years, 1950-2000, pp. 156-157.

  168. Ibid.

  169. Ibid.

  170. Women of Color Health Data Book, Breast Cancer, pp. 103-104.

  171. Health, US, 2002, Table 42, Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast for females, according to race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years, 1950-2000, pp. 156-157.

  172. Women of Color Health Data Book, Breast Cancer, pp. 103-104.

  173. Health, US, 2002, Table 42, Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast for females, according to race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years, 1950-2000, pp. 156-157.

  174. Women of Color Health Data Book, Breast Cancer, pp. 103-104.

  175. Health, US, 2002, Table 42, Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast for females, according to race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years, 1950-2000, pp. 156-157.

  176. Women of Color Health Data Book, Breast Cancer, pp. 103-104.

  177. Health, US, 2002, Table 44, Maternal mortality for complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, according to race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, p. 161.

  178. Health, US, 2002, Table 44, p. 161.

  179. Ibid.

  180. Ibid.

  181. Health, US, 2000, Urban and Rural Health, Mortality, p. 20.

  182. Ibid.

  183. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Reproductive Health Information Source, Surveillance and Research, Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/drh/srv_prams.htm#2).

  184. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Volume 5, Number 5, p. 11. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/nvsr/51/51-pre.htm#51_4).

  185. Health, US, 2002, Table 23, Infant mortality rates, and perinatal mortality rates, according to race: United States, selected years 1950-2000, p. 109.

  186. Women of Color Health Data Book, Birth Outcomes: Infant and Maternal Mortality, p. 89.

  187. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Volume 5, Number 5, pp. 11-12. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/nvsr/51/51-pre.htm#51_4).

  188. Ibid., p. 12.

  189. Ibid.

  190. Women of Color Health Data Book, Substance Use during Pregnancy, p. 87.

  191. Ibid.

  192. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Volume 5, Number 5, pp. 11-12. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/nvsr/51/51-pre.htm#51_4). Women of Color Health Data Book, Birth Outcomes: Weight, p. 88.

  193. Health, US, 2002, Table 12, Low-birthweight live births, according to mother's detailed race, Hispanic origin, and smoking status: United States, selected years 1970-2000, p. 94.

  194. Ibid.

  195. Ibid.

  196. Ibid.

  197. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Update, A Glance at the HIV Epidemic. (http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts.htm)

  198. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, HIV/AIDS Among US Women: Minority and Young Women at Continuing Risk. (http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/women.htm)

  199. Women of Color Health Data Book, HIV Infection and AIDS, p. 111.

  200. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, HIV/AIDS Among US Women: Minority and Young Women at Continuing Risk. (http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/women.htm)

  201. Women of Color Health Data Book, HIV Infection and AIDS, p. 111.

  202. Health, US, 2002, Table 43, Death rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1987-2000, pp. 50-51.

  203. Health, US, 2002, Table 43, pp. 50-51.

  204. Women of Color Health Data Book, HIV Infection and AIDS, pp. 111-113.

  205. Women of Color Health Data Book, HIV Infection and AIDS, pp. 111-113.

  206. Health, US, 2002, Table 43, Death rates for human immunodeficiency visors (HIV) disease, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1987-2000, p 50-51.

  207. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tracking the Hidden Epidemics: Trends in STDs in the United States 2000. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/disease_info.htm#GenInfo)

  208. Ibid.

  209. Ibid.

  210. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health, The National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC), Frequently Asked Questions about Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Overview, October 2002. (http://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdsgen.htm)

  211. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tracking the Hidden Epidemics: Trends in STDs in the United States 2000. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/disease_info.htm#GenInfo)

  212. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Adolescent & School Health, Health Topics: Sexual Behaviors. (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/healthtopics/sexual_behaviors/)

  213. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tracking the Hidden Epidemics: Trends in STDs in the United States 2000. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/disease_info.htm#GenInfo)

  214. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, STD Prevention, Chlamydia Disease Information. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsChlamydiaInfo.htm)

  215. CDC, STD Prevention, Chlamydia Disease Information.

  216. Women of Color Health Data Book, Health Assessment of Women of Color, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Women of Color, p. 109.

  217. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, STD Prevention, Gonorrhea. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsGonorrhea.htm)

  218. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, STD Prevention, Syphilis Elimination: History in the Making, Some Facts about Syphilis. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/Syphilis_Facts.htm)

  219. CDC, STD Prevention, Syphilis Elimination.

  220. CDC, STD Prevention, Syphilis Elimination.

  221. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, STD Prevention, Gonorrhea. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsGonorrhea.htm)

  222. CDC, STD Prevention, Gonorrhea.

  223. Women of Color Health Data Book, Health Assessment of Women of Color, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p. 109.

  224. Ibid.

  225. Ibid.

  226. Ibid.

  227. Ibid.

  228. Ibid.

  229. Ibid.

  230. Ibid.

  231. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health, The National Women's Health Information Center, Genital Herpes, October 2002. (http://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdherpe.htm)

  232. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, STD Prevention, Genital Herpes. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/facts_Genital_Herpes.htm)

  233. CDC, STD Prevention, Genital Herpes.

  234. CDC, STD Prevention, Genital Herpes.

  235. Women of Color Health Data Book, Health Assessment of Women of Color, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Women of Color, p. 109.

  236. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health, The National Women's Health Information Center, Genital Herpes, October 2002. (http://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdherpe.htm)

  237. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health, The National Women's Health Information Center, Frequently Asked Questions about Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts, October 2002. (http://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdhpv.pdf)

  238. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, STD Prevention, Genital HPV Infection. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsHPV.htm)

  239. Health, US, 2002, Table 32, pp. 21-24.

  240. Ibid.

  241. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, General Information. (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/general.htm#what)

  242. CDC, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, General Information.

  243. CDC, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, General Information.

  244. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Diabetes & Women's Health Across the Life Stages: A Public Health Perspective. (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/womenshort.pdf)

  245. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, General Information. (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/general.htm#what)

  246. Health, US, 2002, Table 32, Leading causes of death and numbers of death, according to sex, detailed race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2000, pp. 21-24. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hus/listables.pdf#Determinants)

  247. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Diabetes & Women's Health Across the Life Stages: A Public Health Perspective. (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/womenshort.pdf)

  248. Health, US, 2002, Table 32, Leading causes of death and numbers of death, pp. 21-24.

  249. Women of Color, Diabetes Mellitus, pp. 107-108.

  250. Health, US, 2002, Table 32, Leading causes of death and numbers of death, pp. 21-24.

  251. Women of Color, Diabetes Mellitus, pp. 107-108.

  252. Health, US, 2002, Table 32, Leading causes of death and numbers of death, pp. 21-24.

  253. World Health Organization, Tuberculosis Strategy & Operations, Monitoring & Evaluation, TB and Gender, TB Among Women. (http://www.who.int/gtb/policyrd/Gender&TB.htm#women)

  254. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, TB Elimination, January 2002. Questions and Answers About TB. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/faqs/pdfs/qa.pdf)

  255. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR, Trends in Tuberculosis Morbidity, United States 1992-2002. March 21, 2003, 5(11) pp.217-222. (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5211a2.htm)

  256. MMWR, Trends in Tuberculosis Morbidity, United States 1992-2002.

  257. Ibid.

  258. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Reported TB in the United States, 2001. Table 12, Tuberculosis Cases by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age: United States, 2001. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/surv/surv2001/pdf/T12and13.pdf)

  259. HHS, Fact Sheet & Press Release, June 17, 2002. HHS Efforts to Promote Mental Health.

  260. HHS, Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, Chapter 1, The Fundamentals of Mental Health and Mental Illness. (http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/MentalHealth/chapter1/sec1.html#roots_stigma)

  261. National Institute of Mental Health, The Impact of Mental Illness on Society, "…the burden of psychiatric conditions has been heavily underestimated…" (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/burden.cfm)

  262. National Institute of Mental Health, Women Hold Up Half the Sky, Women and Mental Health Research. (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/womensoms.cfm)

  263. National Institute of Mental Health, The Numbers Count, Mental Disorders in America. (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/numbers.cfm)

  264. NIMH, The Numbers Count.

  265. Ibid.

  266. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health, National Women's Health Information Center, Information Sheet: Eating Disorders.

  267. National Organization for Women Foundation, Women's Health Project: Fact Sheets, Women and Eating Disorders. (http://www.nowfoundation.org/health/whp/whp_fact2.html)

  268. National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH Research On Women's Mental Health: Highlights FY 1999-FY 2000. (http://www.nimh.nih.gov/wmhc/highlights.cfm#2a)

  269. Department of Health and Human Services, Mental Health: Culture, Race and Ethnicity, A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Main Findings. (http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/cre/execsummary-2.html)

  270. Women of Color, Mental Health among Women of Color, p. 114. (http://www4.od.nih.gov/orwh/wocEnglish2002.pdf)

  271. Ibid.

  272. Ibid., p. 115.

  273.   Health, US, 2002, Table 47, Death rates for suicide, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950-2000, p. 60. (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/tables/2002/02hus047.pdf)

  274. Ibid.

  275. Ibid.

  276. Ibid.

  277. Ibid.

  278. Ibid.

  279. Ibid.

  280.   Women of Color Health Data Book, Mental Health among Adolescent Females of Color, p. 115.

  281.   Health, US, 2002, Table 47, Death rates for suicide, p. 60.

  282.   Women of Color Health Data Book, Violence, p. 82.

  283. HHS, Office on Women's Health, NWHIC, Violence Against Women.

  284. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Crime Characteristics. (http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict_c.htm)

  285. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Intimate Partner Violence, Special Report, May 2000.

  286. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001. (http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/ipv01.htm)

  287. HHS, Office on Women's Health, NWHIC, Violence Against Women. Women of Color Health Data Book, Violence, p. 82.

  288. Ibid.

  289. Ibid.

  290. Ibid.

  291. Ibid.

  292. Ibid.

 

July, 2003