United States Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6609J)
402-K-03-002, Revised February 2003
Reduce Radon Levels In Your Home
Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer. The Surgeon General and the EPA recommend testing for radon and reducing radon in homes that have high levels. Fix your home if your radon level is confirmed to be 4 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L) or higher. Radon levels less than 4 pCi/L still pose a risk, and in many cases may be reduced. If you smoke and your home has high radon levels, your risk of lung cancer is especially high.
Select A State Certified and/or Qualified Radon Mitigation
Choose a qualified radon mitigation contractor to fix your home.
Start by checking with your state radon office.
Many states require radon professionals to be licensed, certified, or
registered. You can also contact private radon proficiency programs for
lists of privately certified radon professionals
in your area.
Radon Reduction Techniques Work
Radon reduction systems work. Some radon reduction systems can reduce radon levels in your home by up to 99%. The cost of fixing a home generally ranges from $800 to $2,500
(with an average cost of $1,200). Your costs may vary depending on the size and design of your home and which radon reduction methods are needed.
Hundreds of thousands of people have reduced radon levels in their homes.
Maintain Your Radon Reduction System
Maintaining your radon reduction system takes little effort and keeps the system working properly and radon levels low.
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You have tested your home for radon, but now what? This booklet is for people who have tested their home for radon and confirmed that they have elevated radon levels -- 4
picoCuries per liter (pCi/L) or higher. This booklet can help you:
- Select a qualified radon mitigation contractor to reduce the radon levels in your home
- Determine an appropriate radon reduction method
- Maintain your radon reduction system
If you want information on how to test your home for radon, call your
state radon office and ask for a copy of A Citizen's Guide to Radon
or, if testing during a home sale, the Home Buyer's and
Seller's Guide to Radon. On-line versions of both documents are
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas produced by the breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water. Air pressure inside your home is usually lower than pressure in the soil around your home's foundation. Because of this difference in pressure, your house acts like a vacuum, drawing radon in through foundation cracks and other openings. Radon may also be present in well water and can be released into the air in your home when water is used for showering and other household uses. In most cases, radon entering the home through water is a small risk compared with radon entering your home from the soil. In a small number of homes, the building materials
(e.g., granite and certain concrete products) can give off radon, although building materials rarely cause radon problems by themselves.
In the United States, radon gas in soils is the principal source of elevated
radon levels in homes.
Radon is estimated to cause many thousands of lung cancer deaths each year.
In fact, the Surgeon General has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths. If you smoke and your home has high radon levels, your risk of lung cancer is especially high.
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Any radon exposure has some risk of causing lung cancer. The lower the radon level in your home, the lower your family's risk of lung cancer.
The amount of radon in the air is measured in "picoCuries of radon per liter of
air," or "pCi/L." Sometimes test results are expressed in Working Levels,
"WL," rather than picoCuries per liter of air. A level of 0.02 WL is
usually equal to about 4 pCi/L in a typical home.
The U.S. Congress has set a long-term goal that indoor radon
levels be no more than outdoor levels; about 0.4 pCi/L of radon is normally
found in the outside air. EPA recommends fixing your home if the results
one long-term test or the average of two short-term tests show
radon levels of 4 pCi/L (or 0.02 WL) or higher. With today's technology,
radon levels in most homes can be reduced to 2 pCi/L or below. You may
also want to consider fixing if the level is between 2 and 4 pCi/L.
A short-term test remains in your home for 2 days to 90 days,
whereas a long-term test remains in your home for more than 90 days. All
radon tests should be taken for a minimum of 48 hours. A short-term test
will yield faster results, but a long-term test will give a better understanding
of your home's year-round average radon level.
The EPA recommends two categories of radon testing. One
category is for concerned homeowners or occupants whose house is not for sale;
refer to EPA's pamphlet A Citizen's Guide to Radon
for testing guidance. The second category is for real estate transactions;
refer to EPA's pamphlet Home Buyer's and Seller's
Guide to Radon, which provides guidance and answers to some common
EPA recommends that you have a qualified radon mitigation contractor fix your home because lowering high radon levels requires specific technical knowledge and special skills. Without the proper equipment or technical knowledge, you could actually increase your radon level or create other potential hazards
and additional costs. However, if you decide to do the work yourself, get information on appropriate training courses and copies of EPA's technical guidance documents from
IAQ INFO and your
state radon office.
EPA recommends that you use a
state certified and/or qualified radon mitigation contractor trained to fix radon problems.
You can determine a service provider's qualifications to perform radon
measurements or to mitigate your home in several ways. First, check with
your state radon office.
Many states require radon professionals to be licensed, certified, or
registered, and to install radon mitigation systems that meet state
requirements. Most states can provide you with a list of knowledgeable radon
service providers doing business in the state. In states that don't
regulate radon services, ask the contractor if they hold a professional
proficiency or certification credential, and if they follow industry consensus
standards such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard
Practice for Installing Radon Mitigation Systems in Existing Low-Rise
Residential Buildings, E2121 (March 2001), or the U.S. EPA's
Radon Mitigation Standards (EPA 402-R-93-078, revised
April 1994). You can contact
private proficiency programs for lists of
privately-certified professionals in your area. Such programs usually
provide members with a photo-ID, which indicates their qualification(s) and
the ID-card's expiration date. For more information on private proficiency
www.epa.gov/radon/proficiency.html, or contact your
state radon office.
Since you cannon see or smell radon, special equipment
is needed to detect it. When you're ready to test your home,
contact your state
radon office (or visit our proficiency page at
www.epa.gov/radon/proficiency.html) for information on locating
qualified test kits or qualified radon testers. You can also order
test kits and obtain information from a radon
hotline. There are two types of radon testing devices.
Passive radon testing devices do not need power to function. These
include charcoal canisters, alpha-track detectors, charcoal liquid
scintillation devices, and electret ion chamber detectors. Both
short- and long-term passive devices are generally inexpensive.
Active radon testing devices require power to function and usually
provide hourly readings and an average result for the test period.
These include continuous radon monitors and continuous working level
monitors, and these test may cost more. A state or local official
can explain the differences between devices and recommend ones which are
more appropriate for your needs and expected testing conditions.
Make sure to use a radon testing devices from a
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Choose a contractor to fix a radon problem just as you would choose someone to do other home repairs. It is wise to get more than one estimate, to ask for references, and to contact some of those references to ask if they are satisfied with the contractors' work. Also, ask your
state radon office or
your county/state consumer protection office for information about the contractors.
Use this check-list when evaluating and comparing contractors and ask the following questions:
||Will the contractor provide references or
photographs, as well as test results of 'before' and 'after' radon levels of past radon reduction work?
||Can the contractor explain what the work will involve, how long it will take to complete, and exactly how the radon reduction system will work?
||Does the contractor charge a fee for any diagnostic tests? Although many contractors give free estimates, they may charge for diagnostic tests.
These tests help determine what type of radon reduction system should be used
and in some cases are necessary, especially if the contractor is unfamiliar with
the type of house structure or the anticipated degree of difficulty. See
"Radon Reduction Techniques" for more on diagnostic
||Did the contractor inspect your home's structure before giving you an estimate?
||Did the contractor review the quality
of your radon measurement results and determine if appropriate testing
procedures were followed?
Compare the contractors' proposed costs and consider what you will get for your money,
taking into account: (1) a less expensive system may cost more to operate and
maintain; (2) a less expensive system may have less aesthetic appeal; (3) a more
expensive system may be best for your house; and, (4) the quality of the building material will affect how long the system lasts.
Do the contractors' proposals and estimates include:
||Proof of state certification and/or professional
proficiency or certification credentials?
||Proof of liability insurance and being bonded, and
having all necessary licenses to satisfy local requirements?
||Diagnostic testing prior to design and installation of a radon reduction system?
||Installation of a warning device to caution you if
the radon reduction system is not working correctly?
||Testing after installation to make sure the radon
reduction system works well?
||A guarantee to reduce radon levels to 4 pCi/L or below, and if so, for how long?
Ask the contractor to prepare a contract before any work starts. Carefully read the contract before you sign it. Make sure everything in the contract matches the original proposal. The contract should describe exactly what work will be done prior to and during the installation of the system, what the system consists of, and how the system will operate.
Many contractors provide a guarantee that they will adjust or modify the system
to reach a negotiated radon level. Carefully read the conditions of the
contract describing the guarantee. Carefully consider optional additions to your contract which may add to the initial cost of the system, but may be worth the extra expense. Typical options might include an extended warranty, a service plan,
and/or improved aesthetics.
Important information that should appear in the contract includes:
- The total cost of the job, including all taxes and permit fees; how much, if any, is required for a deposit; and when payment is due in full.
- The time needed to complete the work.
- An agreement by the contractor to obtain necessary
permits and follow required building codes.
- A statement that the contractor carries liability insurance and is bonded and insured to protect you in case of injury to persons, or damage to property, while the work is done.
- A guarantee that the contractor will be responsible for damage and clean-up after the job.
- Details of any guarantee to reduce radon
below a negotiated level.
- Details of warranties or other optional
features associated with the hardware components of the mitigation
- A declaration stating whether any
warranties or guarantees are transferable if you sell your home.
- A description of what the contractor expects the homeowner to do (e.g., make the work area accessible) before work begins.
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In selecting a radon reduction method for your home, you and your contractor should consider several things, including: how high your initial radon level is, the costs of installation and system operation, your house size and your foundation type.
Installation and Operating Costs
The cost of a contractor fixing a home generally ranges from $800 to $2,500, depending on the characteristics of the house and choice of radon reduction methods.
The average cost of a radon reduction system is about $1,200.
Most types of radon reduction systems cause some loss of heated or air conditioned air, which could increase your utility bills. How much your utility bills will
increase will depend on
the climate you live in, what kind of reduction system you select, and how your house is built. Systems that use fans are more effective in reducing radon levels; however, they will
slightly increase your electric bill. The "Installation
and Operating Cost Table" lists the installation and average operating costs for different radon reduction systems and describes the best use of each method.
There are several methods that a contractor can use to lower radon levels in your home. Some techniques prevent radon from entering your home while others reduce radon levels after it has entered. EPA generally recommends methods which prevent the entry of radon.
Soil suction, for example, prevents radon from entering your home by drawing the radon from below the house and venting it through a pipe, or pipes, to the air above the house where it is quickly diluted.
Any information that you may have about the construction of your house could help your contractor choose the best system. Your contractor will perform a visual inspection of your house and design a system that considers specific features of your house. If this inspection fails to provide enough information, the contractor will need to perform
diagnostic tests during the initial phase of the installation to help develop the best radon reduction system for your home. For instance, your contractor can use
chemical smoke to find the source and direction of air movement. A contractor can learn air flow sources and directions by watching a small amount of smoke that he or she shot into holes, drains, sumps, or along cracks. The sources of air flow show possible radon routes.
A contractor may have concerns about backdrafting of combustion appliances when
considering radon mitigation options, and may recommend that the homeowner have
the appliance(s) checked by a qualified inspector.
Another type of diagnostic test is a "soil communication test." This test uses a vacuum cleaner and
chemical smoke to determine how easily air can move from one point to another under the foundation. By inserting a vacuum cleaner hose in one small hole and using
chemical smoke in a second small hole, a contractor can see if the smoke is pulled down into the second hole by the force of the vacuum cleaner's suction. Watching the smoke during a soil communication test helps a contractor decide if certain radon reduction systems would work well in your house.
Whether diagnostic tests are needed is decided by details specific to your house, such as the foundation design, what kind of material is under your house, and by the contractor's experience with similar houses and similar radon test results.
Your house type will affect the kind of radon reduction system that will work best. Houses are generally categorized according to their foundation design. For example:
basement, slab-on-grade (concrete poured at ground level), or crawlspace (a shallow unfinished space under the first floor). Some houses have more than one foundation design feature. For instance, it is common to have a basement under part of the house and to have a slab-on-grade or crawlspace under the rest of the house. In these situations a combination of radon reduction techniques may be needed to reduce radon levels to below 4 pCi/L.
Radon reduction systems can be grouped by house foundation design. Find your type of foundation design above and read about which radon reduction systems may be best for your house.
Basement and Slab-on-Grade Houses
In houses that have a basement or a slab-on-grade foundation, radon is usually reduced by one of four types of soil suction:
subslab suction, drain tile suction, sump hole suction, or block wall suction.
Active Subslab suction (also called subslab depressurization) is the most common and usually the most reliable radon reduction method.
One or more suction pipes are inserted through the floor slab into the crushed rock or soil underneath. They also may be inserted below the concrete slab from outside the house. The number and location of suction pipes that are needed depends on how easily air can move in the crushed rock or soil under the slab, and on the strength of the radon source.
Often, only a single suction point is needed.
A contractor usually gets this information from visual inspection, from diagnostic tests, and/or from experience. A
radon vent fan connected to the suction pipe(s) draws the radon gas from below the house and releases it into the outdoor air
while simultaneously creating a negative pressure (vacuum) beneath the slab.
Common fan locations include unconditioned house and garage spaces, including
attics, and the exterior of the house.
Passive subslab suction is the same as active subslab suction except it relies on
natural pressure differentials and air currents instead of a fan to draw radon up from below the house. Passive subslab suction is
usually associated with radon-resistant features installed in
homes. Passive subslab is generally not as effective in reducing high radon levels as active subslab suction.
Some houses have drain tiles or perforated pipe to direct water away from the foundation of the house. Suction on these tiles
or pipes is often effective in reducing radon levels.
One variation of subslab and drain tile suction is sump hole suction. Often, when a house with a basement has a sump pump to remove unwanted water, the sump can be capped so that it can continue to drain water and serve as the location for a radon suction pipe.
Block wall suction can be used in basement houses with hollow block foundation walls. This method removes radon
and depressurizes the block wall, similar to subslab suction. This method is often used
in combination with subslab suction.
An effective method to reduce radon levels in crawlspace houses
involves covering the earth floor with a high-density plastic sheet. A vent pipe
and fan are used to draw the radon from under the sheet and vent it to the
outdoors. This form of soil suction is called
submembrane suction, and when properly applied is the most effective
way to reduce radon levels in crawlspace houses. Another
less-favorable option is active crawlspace depressurization which involves
drawing air directly from the crawlspace using a fan. This technique
generally does not work as well as submembrane suction and requires special
attention to combustion appliance backdraftiing and sealing the crawlspace from
other portions of the house, and may also result in increased energy costs due
to loss of conditioned air from the house.
In some cases, radon levels can be lowered by ventilating the
crawlspace passively (without the use of a fan) or actively (with the use of a
fan). Crawlspace ventilation may lower indoor radon levels both by
reducing the home's suction on the soil and by diluting the radon beneath the
house. Passive ventilation in a crawlspace is achieved by opening vents,
or installing additional vents. Active ventilation uses a fan to blow air
through the crawlspace instead of relying on natural air circulation. In
colder climates, for either passive or active crawlspace ventilation, water
pipes, sewer lines and appliances in the crawlspace may need to be insulated
against the cold. These ventilation options could result in increased
energy costs for the house.
Other Types of Radon Reduction Methods
Other radon reduction techniques that can be used in any type of house include: sealing, house/room pressurization,
heat recovery ventilation, and natural ventilation.
Sealing cracks and other openings in the foundation is a basic part of most approaches to radon reduction. Sealing
the cracks limits the flow of radon into your home thereby making other radon reduction techniques more effective and cost-efficient.
It also reduces the loss of conditioned air.
EPA does not recommend the use of sealing alone to reduce radon because, by itself, sealing has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently. It is difficult to identify and permanently seal the places where radon is entering. Normal settling of your house opens new entry routes and reopens old ones.
House/room pressurization uses a fan to blow air into the basement or living area from either upstairs or outdoors. It attempts to create enough pressure at the lowest level indoors (in a basement for example) to prevent radon from entering into the house. The effectiveness of this technique is limited by house construction, climate, other appliances in the house, and occupant lifestyle. In order to maintain enough pressure to keep radon out, the doors and windows at the lowest level must not be left opened, except for normal entry and exit.
This approach generally results in more outdoor air being introduced into the
home, which can cause moisture intrusion and energy penalties.
Consequently, this technique should only be considered after the other,
more-common techniques have not sufficiently reduced radon.
A heat recovery ventilator (HRV), also called an air-to-air heat exchanger, can be installed to increase ventilation
which will help reduce the radon levels in your home. An HRV will increase ventilation
by introducing outdoor air while using the heated or cooled air being exhausted
to warm or cool the incoming air. HRVs can be designed to ventilate all or part of your home, although they are more effective in reducing radon levels when used to ventilate only the basement. If properly balanced and maintained, they ensure a constant degree of ventilation throughout the year. HRVs also can improve air quality in houses that have other indoor pollutants. There could be
significant increase in the heating and cooling costs with an HRV, but not as great as ventilation without heat recovery (see
the "Installation and Operating Cost Table").
Some natural ventilation occurs in all houses. By
opening windows, doors, and vents on the lower floors you increase the
ventilation in your house. This increase in ventilation mixes outdoor air
with the indoor air containing radon, and can result in reduced radon levels.
However, once windows, doors and vents are closed, radon concentrations most
often return to previous values within about 12 hours. Natural
ventilation in any type of house should normally be regarded as only a temporary
radon reduction approach because of the following disadvantages: loss of
conditioned air and related discomfort, greatly increased costs of conditioning
additional outside air, and security concerns.
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Below is a list of basic installation requirements that your contractor should meet
when installing a radon reduction system in your home. It is important to
verify with your contractor that the radon mitigation standards are properly met to ensure
that your radon reduction system will be effective. You can also check
with your state radon office to see if there are state requirements that your
contractor must meet.
- Radon reduction systems must be clearly labeled. This will avoid accidental changes to the system which could disrupt its function.
- The exhaust pipe(s) of soil suction systems
must vent above the surface of the roof and 10 feet or more above the ground, and
at least 10 feet away from windows, doors, or other openings that could allow the radon to reenter the house,
if the exhaust pipe(s) do not vent at least 2 feet above these
- The exhaust fan must not be located in
or below a livable area. For instance, it should be in an unoccupied attic of the house or outside - not in a basement!
- If installing an exhaust fan outside, the contractor
must install a fan that meets local building codes for exterior use.
- Electrical connections of all active
radon reduction systems must be installed according to local
- A warning device must be installed to alert you if
an active system stops working properly. Examples of system failure warning devices are: a liquid gauge, a sound alarm, a light indicator, and a dial (needle display) gauge.
The warning device must be placed where it can be seen or heard easily.
Your contractor should check
that the warning device works. Later on, if your monitor shows that the system is not working properly, call a contractor to have it checked.
- A post-mitigation radon test should be
done within 30 days of system installation, but no sooner than 24
hours after your system is in operation with the fan on, if it has
one. The contractor may perform a post-mitigation test to check
his work and the initial effectiveness of the system; however, it is
recommended that you also get an independent follow-up radon
measurement. Having an independent tester perform the test, or
conducting the measurement yourself, will eliminate any potential
conflict of interest. To test the system's effectiveness, a 2-7
day measurement is recommended. Test conditions: windows
and doors must be closed 12 hours before and during the test, except
for normal entry/exit.
- Make sure your contractor completely
explains your radon reduction system, demonstrates how it operates,
and explains how to maintain it. Ask for written operating and
maintenance instructions and copies of any warranties.
Maintaining Your Radon Reduction System
Similar to a furnace or chimney, radon reduction systems need some occasional maintenance. You should look at your warning device on a regular basis to make sure the system is working correctly. Fans may last for five years or more (manufacturer warranties tend not to exceed
five years) and may then need to be repaired or replaced. Replacing a fan will cost around $200
- $350 including parts and labor. It is a good idea to retest your home at least every two years
to be sure radon levels remain low.
Remember, the fan should NEVER be turned off; it must run continuously for the system to work correctly.
The filter in an HRV requires periodic cleaning and should be changed twice a year. Replacement filters for an HRV are easily changed and are priced between $10 and $25. Ask your contractor where filters can be purchased. Also, the vent that brings fresh air in from the outside needs to be inspected for leaves and debris. The ventilator should be checked annually by a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning
professional to make sure the air flow remains properly balanced. HRVs used for radon control should run all the time.
Remodeling Your Home After Radon Levels Have Been Lowered
If you decide to make major structural changes to your home after you have had a radon reduction system installed (such as converting an unfinished basement area into living space), ask your radon contractor whether these changes could void any warranties. If you are
planning to add a new foundation for an addition to your house, ask your radon
contractor about what measures should be taken to ensure reduced radon levels
throughout the home. After you remodel, retest in the lowest lived-in area
to make sure the construction did not reduce the effectiveness of the radon
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If you are buying or selling a home and need to make decisions about radon, consult EPA's
Home Buyer's and Seller's Guide to Radon. If you are selling a home that has a radon reduction system, inform potential buyers and supply them with information about your system's operation and maintenance. If you are building a new house, consider that it is almost always less expensive to build radon-resistant features into new construction than it is to fix an existing house that has high radon levels. Ask your builder if he or she uses radon-resistant construction features. Your builder can refer to EPA's
Building Radon Out: A Step-by-Step
Guide On How to Build Radon-Resistant Homes, or your builder can work
with a qualified contractor to design and install the proper radon reduction
system. To obtain EPA's technical documents or to find a qualified contractor contact your
state radon office or see our radon
proficiency page (www.epa.gov/radon/proficiency.html). All homes should be tested for radon and
elevated radon levels should be reduced. Even new homes built with
radon-resistant features should be tested after occupancy to ensure that radon
levels are below 4 pCi/L. If you have a test result of 4 pCi/L or
more, you can have a qualified mitigator easily add a vent to an existing
passive system for about $300 and further reduce the radon level in your home.
Most often, the radon in your home's indoor air can come from
two sources, the soil or your water supply. Compared to radon entering
your home through water, radon entering your home through soil is usually a much
larger risk. If you are concerned about radon and you have a private well,
consider testing for radon in both air and water. By testing for radon in
both air and water, the results could enable you to more completely assess the
radon mitigation option(s) best suited to your situation. The devices and
procedures for testing your home's water supply are different from those used
for measuring radon in air.
The radon in your water supply poses an inhalation risk and a
small ingestion risk. Most of your risk from radon in water comes from
radon released into the air when water is used for showering and other household
purposes. Research has shown that your risk of lung cancer from breathing
radon in air is much larger than your risk of stomach cancer from swallowing
water with radon on it.
Radon in your home's water is not usually a problem when its
source is surface water. A radon in water problem is more likely when its
source is ground water, e.g., a private well or a public water supply system
that uses ground water. Some public water systems treat their water to
reduce radon levels before it is delivered to your home. If you are
concerned that radon may be entering your home through the water and your water
comes from a public water supply, contact your water supplier.
If you've tested your private well and have a radon in water
problem, it can be easily fixed. Your home's water supply can be treated
in one of two ways. Point-of-entry treatment for the whole house can
effectively remove radon from the water before it enters your home's water
distribution system. Point-of-entry treatment usually employs either
granular activated carbon (GAC) filters or aeration systems. While GAC
filters usually cost less than aeration systems, filters can collect
radioactivity and may require a special method of disposal. Both GAC
filters and aeration systems have advantages and disadvantages that should be
discussed with your state radon office or a water treatment professional.
Point-of-use treatment devices remove radon from your water at the tap, but only
treat a small portion of the water you use, e.g., the water you drink.
Point-of-use devices are not effective in reducing the risk from breathing radon
released into the air from all water used in the home.
For information on radon in water, testing and treatment, and
radon in drinking water standards, or for general help, call your
office or EPA's Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or visit
state radon office can assist
you in obtaining radon-in-water test kits and interpreting test results.
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||Typical Radon Reduction
||Typical Range of Installation Costs
Cost Range for Fan
Electricity & Heated/
Cooled Air Loss
|50 - 99%
||$800 - $2,500
||$50 - $200
||Works best if air can move easily in material under slab.
|Passive Subslab Suction
||30 - 70%
||$550 - $2,250
||There may be some energy penalties
||May be more effective in cold climates; not as effective as active subslab suction.
||50 - 99%
||$800 - $1,700
||$50 - $200
||Can work with either partial or
complete drain tile loops.
||50 - 99%
||$1,500 - $3,000
||$100 - $400
||Only in houses with hollow blockwalls; requires sealing of major openings.
|Sump Hole Suction
||50 - 99%
||$800 - $2,500
||$50 - $250
||Works best if air moves easily to the sump
under the slab.
|Submembrane Depressurization in a Crawlspace
||50 - 99%
||$1,000 - $2,500
||$50 - $250
||Less heat loss than natural ventilation in cold winter climates.
|Natural Ventilation in a Crawlspace
||0 - 50%
$200 - $500 if additional vents installed
|There may be some energy penalties.
|Sealing of Radon Entry Routes
||$100 - $2,000
||Normally only used with other techniques; proper materials & installation required
|House (Basement) Pressurization
||50 - 99%
||$500 - $1,500
||$150 - $500
||Works best with tight basement isolated from outdoors & upper floors.
$200 - $500 if additional vents installed
|$100 - $700
||Significant heated/cooled air loss; operating costs depend on utility rates & amount of ventilation.
|Heat Recovery Ventilation (HRV)
|$1,200 - $2,500
||$75 - $500 for continuous operation
||Limited use; effectiveness limited by
radon concentration and the amount of ventilation air available for dilution by
the HRV. Best applied to limited-space areas like basements.
|Private Well Water Systems: Aeration
||95 - 99%
||$3,000 - $4,500
||$50 - $150
||Generally more efficient than GAC;
requires annual cleaning to maintain effectiveness and to prevent contamination;
requires venting radon to outdoors.
|Private Well Water Systems:
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
||85 - 99%
||$1,000 - $3,000
||Less efficient for higher levels than aeration; use for moderate levels (around 5,000 pCi/L or less
in water); radioactive radon by-products can build on carbon; may need radiation shield around tank & care in disposal.
- The fan electricity and house heating/cooling loss cost range is based on
certain assumptions regarding climate, your house size, and the cost of
electricity and fuel. Your costs may vary.
- Costs for cosmetic treatments to the house may increase the typical
installation costs shown above.
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State Radon Contacts - Up-to-date phone
information about how to contact your state radon office is available at
www.epa.gov/iaq/whereyoulive.html You can also get information
about your state contacts by calling the Indoor Air Quality Information
Clearinghouse (IAQ INFO) at 1-800-438-4318.
Radon Website - EPA's radon home page (
www.epa.gov/radon ) includes links to
publications, hotlines, private proficiency programs and more.
Regional Offices - Check out
www.epa.gov/iaq/whereyoulive.html for a listing of your EPA Regional Office.
Publications - Most EPA radon publications are
available from www.epa.gov/radon/pubs
or from IAQ INFO or from any one of the following hotlines:
Hotlines (These hotline numbers are
subject to change, for up-to-date information, call 1-800-438-4318)
- 1-800-438-4318 - IAQ INFO Clearinghouse (
), operated by an EPA contractor, this hotline can be used for general radon
and indoor air quality information. You can also call this hotline to
- 1-800-SOS-RADON (767-7236) - Operated by the National Safety
Council in partnership with EPA. Order discounted radon test kits by
phone or on-line (www.nsc.org/ehc/radon.htm
- 1-800-55RADON (557-2366) - Operated by the National Safety
in partnership with EPA. Get a live operator who can help you with
your radon questions.
- 1-800-725-8312 - Spanish language hotline, operated by the
National Alliance for Hispanic Health (Hispanichealth.org
in partnership with EPA. For general help with radon, testing, and
mitigation questions, and free test kits.
- 1-800-426-4791 - Safe Drinking Water Hotline (epa.gov/safewater/radon.html),
privately operated under contract to EPA. For general information on
drinking water, radon in water, testing and treatment, and radon drinking
IAQ INFO (epa.gov/iaq/iaqinfo.html
P.O. Box 37133, Washington, DC 20013-7133
or, you can order this publication
directly via EPA's National Service Center for Environmental
Publications (NSCEP) (epa.gov/ncepihom/).
web site. Your publication requests can also be mailed, called or faxed
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP)
P.O. Box 42419
Cincinnati, OH 42419
1-800-490-9198/(513) 489-8695 (fax)
Consumer Federation of America
strongly urges consumers to have elevated radon levels in their homes reduced. EPA's "Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction" will assist these individuals and offers very good advice for selecting and working with a qualified radon contractor.
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